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Table 3 Topics areas and related subtopics that emerged from analysis of the round one questionnaire

From: The use of a modified Delphi approach to engage stakeholders in zoonotic disease research priority setting

Topic number Topics areas and related subtopics
1 Risk prevention, mitigation, and biosecurity
 Knowledge of practices to reduce risk of Hendra virus transmission to horses and humans
 Implementation of practices to reduce risk of Hendra virus in horses and humans
 Property and vegetation management as it relates to premise biosecurity
 Enablers and barriers to uptake of recommended behaviours/practices
2 Personal health and safety
 Knowledge of personal risk reduction practices
 Utilization of personal risk reduction practices
 Personal hygiene practices
 Personal protective equipment (PPE) knowledge, availability and use
 Enablers and barriers to utilization of personal health and safety practices
 Measures of risk-related behaviours (close contact with horses, handling of bodily fluids, etc.)
 Concerns about risk to self from other animals (e.g. dogs, wildlife)
3 Hendra virus-related risk awareness and perception
 Vulnerability to Hendra virus (horse(s), self, other people)
 Likelihood of being impacted (horse(s), self, other people)
 Beliefs underlying perceived level of risk
 Fear and concern (horse(s), self, other people)
 Awareness of local risk
 Attitudes towards Hendra virus in the context of other diseases/disease risks
 Perceived risk of Hendra virus relative to other infectious diseases and health threats
4 Hendra virus vaccination in horses – process and implementation
 Process of roll-out, including how best to enable uptake
 Priority horse subpopulations for vaccination
 Persons responsible for administering the vaccine
 Perceived need for compulsory vaccination among horse subpopulations
 Perceived role for government in vaccination
5 Hendra virus vaccination in horses – attitudes and uptake
 Willingness to vaccinate and/or vaccinate regularly
 Anticipated uptake
 Barriers to uptake
 Attitudes toward vaccination including perceived effectiveness and concerns about adverse effects
6 Awareness and knowledge of Hendra virus
 Transmission routes
 Signs and symptoms
 Time between infection and clinical onset of disease
 Time between infection and infectiousness
 Locations and details of previous outbreaks
 Environmental conditions that impact transmission
7 Bats/Flying foxes – attitudes and awareness
 Attitudes to bats/flying foxes
 Attitudes to control of bats/flying foxes
 Awareness of local activity
 Opportunities for interaction with horses
 Protecting horses from bat/flying fox exposure
 Knowledge of the role of bats, bat ecology, and bat feeding and roosting behaviours
8 Communication, information, and education
 Verbal communication with veterinarian(s)/government agencies
 Sources of advice
 Perceived success of government communication
 Role of media
 Desired forms of communication/sources of information
9 Hendra virus surveillance and reporting
 Likelihood of early consideration of Hendra virus
 Response to a sick horse
 Severity of illness in horse(s) before a veterinarian is contacted
 When to notify authorities of a sick horse
 Awareness of reporting responsibilities
 Knowledge of reporting pathways
 Enablers and barriers to reporting of suspect cases
 Concerns about reporting
10 Emergency preparedness
 Expectations and preferences in relation to event management
 Record keeping
 Attitudes toward registration of movements and movement controls
 Recording of horse health status and vaccination history
 Attitudes around horse and horse owner identification
11 Horse health awareness
 Frequency of horse observations
 Monitoring for signs of disease
12 Hendra virus response
 Knowledge of the government response plan
 Expectations of time to diagnosis
 Knowledge of testing and quarantine procedures
 Attitudes to recovered horses
 Knowledge and attitudes toward the issue of Hendra virus recrudescence (i.e. reoccurrence of clinical disease in a previously affected animal or person)
 Knowledge of available support
 Attitudes to government response to cases
 Need for a human vaccine
13 Relationship with veterinarian(s)
 Frequency of consultations and communications
 Health services routinely provided by veterinarians
 Trust in veterinarian(s)
 Health of relationship with veterinarian(s)
14 Responsibility
 Attitudes around who is responsible for Hendra virus risk mitigation and response
 Beliefs concerning who should pay the Hendra virus-related costs
15 Sense of control/effectiveness
 Perceived effectiveness of recommended health and safety and biosecurity practices
 Sense of control over ability to reduce personal risk and risk to other people and animals
16 Information seeking
 Primary source of information
 Preferred sources of information
 Trusted sources of information
 Membership in horse associations
 Access to and use of newsletters/e-alerts/subscriptions
 Use of social media
 Use of social networks/informal word-of-mouth/knowledge sharing
 Attendance at workshops/training
17 Trust
 Trust in government agencies to communicate and respond
 Trust in the research and science informing the Hendra virus response
 Trust in others to report and take the appropriate actions
18 Horse behaviour
 Knowledge and awareness of the behaviour of their horse(s)
 Interactions with wildlife/other domestic species (possums, feral cats, livestock, companion animals)
   Interactions with other horses