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Table 2 Daily dietary intake of macronutrients and fiber, resting energy expenditure and physical activity level across month 0 and month 6 of the study subjects in both arms [the control and the low glycemic index (GI) groups]

From: A randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of a low glycemic index (GI) diet on body mass index in obese adolescents

  Month 0 Month 6
  Control (n = 52) Low GI (n = 52) p# Control (n = 27) Low GI (n = 34) p#
Nutrient       
Energy (kcal)       
 Observed 2102.9 (544.3) 1955.2 (583.4) 0.185 1981.6 (653.7) 1565.0 (545.1) 0.001
 Expected   
Carbohydrate (% of energy)       
 Observed 47.9 (5.6) 47.2 (8.2) 0.598 49.5 (6.6) 50.8 (8.1) 0.384
 Expected   55–60% 45–50%  
Fat (% of energy)       
 Observed 35.6 (4.9) 35.6 (6.8) 0.975 34.4 (5.9) 31.2 (6.7) 0.012
 Expected   25–30% 30–35%  
Protein (% of energy)       
 Observed 16.5 (2.4) 17.1 (3.4) 0.253 15.9 (2.7) 17.9 (3.8) 0.002
 Expected   10–20% 15–25%  
Fiber (g/1000 kcal)       
 Observed 4.9 (1.9) 5.2 (3.2) 0.538 5.3 (2.5) 6.5 (3.3) 0.041
 Expected   
GI       
 Observed 76.1 (10.8) 74.4 (10.5) 0.417 76.8 (10.2) 74.4 (8.7) 0.199
 Expected   
GL, per 1000 kcal       
 Observed 110.5 (46.3) 115.6 (50.5) 0.591 106.3 (42.7) 117.7 (42.5) 0.175
 Expected   
Resting energy expenditure (kcal/kg) 22.6 (4.4) 21.4 (3.1) 0.130 23.7 (4.0) 22.3 (4.1) 0.174
  *(n = 35) *(n = 35)   *(n = 18) *(n = 28)  
Physical activity level (MET-minutes/week) 1626 (594 – 3657) 3492 (1386 – 4506) 0.143 2266 (960 – 4318) 1453 (740 – 2780) 0.235
  1. Variables marked with are presented as median (interquartile range), all others are presented as mean (standard deviation).
  2. GL: glycemic load.
  3. #t-test between the control and low GI groups; those variables marked with were log-transformed before being compared by t-test.
  4. *The number of valid responses to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was used for assessing the average physical activity level of the participants in the past seven days.