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Table 3 Exposure predictions based on analysis of aerosols generated by smoking machines: inorganic compounds #

From: Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks

Element quantified Assumed compound containing the element for comparison with TLV N## Estimated concentration in personal breathing zone (mg/m3) Ratio of most stringent TLV (%) Reference
Calculated directly Safety factor 10
Aluminum Respirable Al metal & insoluble compounds 1 0.002 0.2 1.5 [26]
Barium Ba & insoluble compounds 1 0.00005 0.01 0.1 [26]
Boron Boron oxide 1 0.02 0.1 1.5 [26]
Cadmium Respirable Cd & compounds 12 0.00002 1 10 [8]
Chromium Insoluble Cr (IV) compounds 1 3E-05 0.3 3 [26]
Copper Cu fume 1 0.0008 0.4 4.0 [26]
Iron Soluble iron salts, as Fe 1 0.002 0.02 0.2 [26]
Lead Inorganic compounds as Pb 1 7E-05 0.1 1 [26]
12 0.000025 0.05 0.5 [8]
Magnesium Inhalable magnesium oxide 1 0.00026 0.003 0.03 [26]
Manganese Inorganic compounds, as Mn 1 8E-06 0.04 0.4 [26]
Nickel Inhalable soluble inorganic compounds, as Ni 1 2E-05 0.02 0.2 [26]
12 0.00005 0.05 0.5 [8]
Potassium KOH 1 0.001 0.1 1 [26]
Tin Organic compounds, as Sn 1 0.0001 0.1 1 [26]
Zinc Zinc chloride fume 1 0.0004 0.04 0.4 [26]
Zirconium Zr and compounds 1 3E-05 0.001 0.01 [26]
Sulfur SO2 1 0.002 0.3 3 [26]
  1. #The actual molecular form in the aerosol unknown and so worst case assumption was made if it was physically possible (e.g. it is not possible for elemental lithium & sodium to be present in the aerosol); there is no evidence from the research that suggests the metals were in the particular highest risk form, and in most cases a general knowledge of chemistry strongly suggests that this is unlikely. Thus, the TLV ratios reported here probably do not represent the (much lower) levels that would result if we knew the molecular forms.
  2. ##Average is presented when N > 1.