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Table 4 Differences in economic outcomes between angina-affected and control households in South Asia, 2002-2003: Implications of controlling for comorbid conditions

From: The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia

Economic outcome indicators Bangladesh India Nepal Sri Lanka
Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed)
Per person OOP health spending in last four weeks (I$) 1.55 (0.11) 1.46 (0.16) 0.18 (0.91) 0.73 (0.54) 0.39 (0.75) 4.42* (<0.01) 4.18 (0.06) 4.26 (0.14) 2.44 (0.67) 1.84* (0.01) 2.93 (0.42) 4.33 (0.27)
Per person expenditure on medicine in last four weeks (I$) 0.38 (0.48) 0.64 (0.24) 0.42 (0.47) 0.35 (0.66) 0.22 (0.80) 1.73 (0.16) 3.19* (0.03) 3.34 (0.19) 0.56 (0.88) 0.86* (<0.01) 0.05 ( 0.90) 0.89* (0.05)
Per person hospitalization expenses in last four weeks (I$) 0.80 (0.15) 0.61 (0.35) -0.33 (0.78) -0.05 (0.95) -0.45 (0.52) 1.55* (0.02) 0.68 (0.26) 0.84 (0.13) 0.20 (0.91) 0.77 (0.07) 2.28 (0.53) 3.71 (0.34)
Borrowing or selling assets to finance health expenditure in last one year (%) 3.45 (0.21) 1.92 (0.57) -0.77 (0.85) 4.94* (0.03) 3.30 (0.21) 3.87 (0.25) 3.05 (0.31) 9.20* (0.03) 0.40 (0.92) 8.58* (<0.01) 10.51* (0.01) 6.75 (0.14)
OOP health spending share of total household expenditure at 20% cut-off (%) 2.87 (0.24) -1.44 (0.63) -0.27 (0.94) 6.34* (<0.01) 2.29 (0.32) 11.26* (<0.01) 5.36* (0.01) 8.37* (<0.01) 4.83 (0.09) 8.50* (<0.01) 4.98 (0.14) 8.58* (<0.01)
OOP health spending share of household’s ‘capacity to pay’ at 40% cut-off (%) 2.94 (0.28) 0.49 (0.88) -4.78 (0.22) 3.51 (0.11) -0.24 (0.92) 8.20* (<0.01) 5.08* (0.03) 9.59* (<0.01) 6.51* (0.03) 11.09* (<0.01) 9.85* (0.02) 8.46* (0.05)
Ratio of OOP health spending and total household expenditure (%) 1.47 (0.07) 0.18 (0.85) 0.43 (0.70) 2.27* (<0.01) 0.91 (0.34) 4.41* (<0.01) 2.22* (0.01) 3.75* (<0.01) 3.32* (<0.01) 3.27* (<0.01) 2.29 (0.06) 2.99* (0.01)
Ratio of OOP medicine expenses and total household expenditure (%) 0.76 (0.22) 0.29 (0.70) 0.04 (0.96) 1.00 (0.11) -0.03 (0.97) 1.77 (0.06) 2.12* (<0.01) 3.45* (0.01) 2.34* (0.01) 1.63* (<0.01) 0.07 (0.92) 1.93* (0.01)
Impoverishment due to OOP health payments (%) 1.13 (0.53) -3.47 (0.12) 1.83 (0.52) 0.93 (0.50) 0.46 (0.77) -0.78 (0.72) 1.95 (0.22) 1.89 (0.42) 2.04 (0.28) 3.01 (0.07) 2.32 (0.26) 4.77* (0.03)
Employment status of angina-affected individual (%) 2.06 (0.45) 0.52 (0.88) 0.78 (0.85) -1.29 (0.58) 2.82 (0.29) -0.83 (0.80) -1.00 (0.72) 2.51 (0.54) 0.54 (0.88) 0.62 (0.88) -4.04 (0.45) 1.03 (0.85)
Unemployed due to illness (%) 1.93* (<0.01) 1.13 (0.20) 2.21 (0.08) 0.40 (0.70) -0.06 (0.95) 2.70 (0.07) 2.03 (0.08) 1.70 (0.32) 1.14 (0.44) 3.31 (0.10) 3.91 (0.15) 4.34 (0.13)
Per person non-medical consumption expenditure in last four weeks (I$) 7.60 (0.24) 1.47 (0.72) 19.27 (0.10) -2.76 (0.45) 1.65 (0.38) 2.77 (0.39) 5.59* (0.03) -15.27 (0.08) 7.47* (0.04) -4.67 (0.02)* -2.84 (0.35) -2.82 (0.26)
Sample 1360 872 647 1990 1470 956 1140 591 638 588 351 317
  1. Notes: Regression coefficients are derived using data sets consisting of only matched households using the nearest-neighbor method and coefficients are controlled for co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, asthma and depression. Each p-value is in parenthesis. For each coefficient statistical significance is shown at the level of 5%*. All expenditure estimates are in international dollar based on the World Banks’s purchasing power parity in 2003. For impoverishing effect the World Bank’s international poverty line for low income countries (1.25 international dollar per person per day) is used.