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Table 3 Differences in economic outcomes between angina-affected households and control households in South Asia, 2002-2003: Results for different definitions of angina-affected household

From: The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia

Economic outcome indicators Bangladesh India Nepal Sri Lanka
Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed) Angina (any) Angina (symptom) Angina (diagnosed)
Per person OOP health spending in last four weeks (I$) 1.94* (0.04) 1.50 (0.15) 0.49 (0.75) 1.45 (0.25) 1.25 (0.32) 4.91* (<0.01) 4.68* (0.03) 4.14 (0.12) 2.61 (0.65) 1.99* (<0.01) 4.47 (0.18) 5.23 (0.15)
Per person expenditure on medicine in last four weeks (I$) 0.80 (0.16) 0.66 (0.23) 0.70 (0.23) 0.87 (0.30) 0.77 (0.36) 1.99 (0.08) 3.45* (0.01) 3.59 (0.12) 0.52 (0.89) 0.94* (<0.01) 0.22 (0.61) 0.92* (0.04)
Per person hospitalization expenses in last four weeks (I$) 0.72 (0.16) 0.56 (0.37) -0.45 (0.71) -0.21 (0.80) -0.20 (0.79) 1.51* (0.01) 0.70 (0.22) 0.53 (0.28) 0.16 (0.92) 0.74* (0.05) 3.66 (0.27) 4.46 (0.22)
Borrowing or selling assets to finance health expenditure in last one year (%) 6.00* (0.03) 2.20 (0.53) 0.90 (0.82) 8.20* (<0.01) 6.40* (0.02) 9.70* (<0.01) 4.00 (0.18) 8.80* (0.04) 1.80 (0.65) 7.80* (0.01) 10.40* (0.01) 7.70 (0.10)
OOP health spending share of total household expenditure at 20% cut-off (%) 3.80 (0.13) <0.01 (1.00) 1.80 (0.63) 9.60* (<0.01) 2.50 (0.28) 13.30* (<0.01) 4.90* (0.02) 7.50* (0.01) 5.80* (0.04) 9.10* (<0.01) 3.30 (0.31) 9.50* (<0.01)
OOP health spending share of household’s ‘capacity to pay’ at 40% cut-off (%) 3.50 (0.20) 2.00 (0.56) -1.80 (0.65) 6.70* (<0.01) 0.60 (0.80) 10.10* (<0.01) 4.50* (0.05) 8.40* (<0.01) 7.00* (0.02) 10.00* (<0.01) 8.20* (0.05) 8.90* (0.04)
Ratio of OOP health spending and total household expenditure (%) 2.00* (0.02) 0.40 (0.70) 1.10 (0.32) 3.60* (<0.01) 1.40 (0.15) 5.40* (<0.01) 2.20* (0.01) 4.00* (<0.01) 3.70* (<0.01) 3.40* (<0.01) 2.10 (0.08) 3.30* (<0.01)
Ratio of OOP medicine expenses and total household expenditure (%) 1.20* (0.05) 0.40 (0.59) 0.40 (0.60) 1.70* (<0.01) 0.40 (0.61) 2.00* (0.02) 2.10* (<0.01) 3.70* (<0.01) 2.70* (<0.01) 1.80* (<0.01) 0.30 (0.68) 2.00* (<0.01)
Impoverishment due to OOP health payments (%) 0.80 (0.66) -3.10 (0.18) 1.50 (0.60) 1.90 (0.18) 0.10 (0.94) 0.20 (0.92) 2.20 (0.16) 2.60 (0.25) 2.40 (0.19) 3.40* (0.03) 2.20 (0.27) 4.70* (0.02)
Employment status of angina-affected individual (%) 2.30 (0.41) 1.50 (0.65) -1.50 (0.71) -1.00 (0.68) 3.50 (0.19) -3.00 (0.37) -3.00 (0.28) 1.90 (0.62) -1.50 (0.68) -0.90 (0.83) -5.50 (0.30) -1.80 (0.76)
Unemployed due to illness (%) 2.40* (<0.01) 1.50 (0.08) 2.90* (0.01) 1.50 (0.14) 0.50 (0.65) 3.20* (0.02) 2.00 (0.07) 2.60 (0.11) 1.50 (0.29) 4.70* (0.02) 7.10* (<0.01) 5.30 (0.06)
Per person non-medical consumption expenditure in last four weeks (I$) 6.97 (0.25) -0.17 (0.97) 19.87 (0.07) -3.27 (0.42) 3.09 (0.09) 5.37 (0.07) 5.24* (0.04) -9.66 (0.28) 7.45* (0.04) -2.88 (0.18) -2.10 (0.49) -2.23 (0.39)
Treatment (control) 736 (624) 458 (414) 339 (308) 1118 (872) 793 (677) 503 (453) 597 (543) 308 (283) 328 (310) 320 (268) 183 (168) 169 (148)
  1. Notes: Coefficients are the average treatment effects derived from the nearest-neighbor matching. For each coefficient statistical significant difference between the treatment and matched controls is shown at the level of 5%*. Each p-value is reported in parenthesis below each estimate of the difference in outcomes between angina-affected and matched control households. All expenditure estimates are in international dollar based on the World Banks’s purchasing power parity in 2003. For impoverishing effect the World Bank’s international poverty line for low income countries (1.25 international dollar per person per day) is used.