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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios for the association between stratified onset age of smoking and diabetes using South Korea NHANES 2010, United States NHANES 2009-2010

From: Do early onset and pack-years of smoking increase risk of type II diabetes?

  South Korean men U.S. men South Korean women U.S. women
  Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value Hazard ratio P-value
  (95% CI)   (95% CI)   (95% CI)   (95% CI)  
Smoking Onset Age         
Never Smoked 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
≥26 years 1.26 (0.60-2.65) 0.540 1.82 (0.81-4.11) 0.139 1.43 (0.70-2.93) 0.33 1.79 (0.59-5.47) 0.287
21–25 years 1.39 (0.71-2.73) 0.340 1.68 (0.79-3.55) 0.163 0.50 (0.06-4.18) 0.519 1.26 (0.48-3.34) 0.622
16–20 years 1.54 (0.82-2.88) 0.180 1.58 (1.05-2.37) 0.031 0.10 (0.01-0.84) 0.034 1.83 (0.85-3.90) 0.112
<16 years 2.46 (1.04-5.79) 0.040 1.64 (1.01-2.67) 0.047 1.54 (0.21-11.14) 0.67 2.01 (0.67-6.05) 0.200
Smoking Pack-year [10 pack year]* 1.03 (0.96-1.10) 0.476 1.07 (1.01-1.12) 0.02 0.97 (0.64-1.48) 0.901 1.02 (0.93-1.12) 0.606
Age (Years) 1.05 (1.04-1.07) <.0001 1.04 (1.03-1.05) <.0001 1.05 (1.04-1.07) <.0001 1.03 (1.02-1.05) 0.001
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 1.09 (1.04-1.15) 0.001 1.08 (1.05-1.11) <.0001 1.11 (1.07-1.16) <.0001 1.08 (1.06-1.10) <.0001
Family Income Percentile         
<25 % 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
26 % –50 % 0.72 (0.43-1.21) 0.215 1.05 (0.72-1.55) 0.777 1.35 (0.86-2.11) 0.197 1.07 (0.71-1.62) 0.719
51 % –75 % 0.68 (0.38-1.25) 0.213 0.86 (0.49-1.50) 0.568 1.21 (0.68-2.15) 0.511 0.71 (0.42-1.23) 0.205
>75 % 0.76 (0.44-1.31) 0.323 0.73 (0.45-1.21) 0.203 0.76 (0.42-1.39) 0.375 0.85 (0.42-1.70) 0.616
Education         
Less than Elementary School 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Less than Middle School 1.45 (0.88-2.40) 0.144 0.84 (0.46-1.54) 0.555 0.67 (0.35-1.27) 0.218 0.73 (0.32-1.64) 0.418
High School Diploma 1.26 (0.78-2.05) 0.346 0.87 (0.53-1.42) 0.556 1.00 (0.60-1.68) 0.987 0.51 (0.25-1.02) 0.056
At Least Some College 0.86 (0.47-1.58) 0.625 0.89 (0.58-1.35) 0.557 0.61 (0.22-1.72) 0.349 0.44 (0.23-0.83) 0.014
Marital Status         
Married 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Other 0.86 (0.46-1.63) 0.647 1.11 (0.78-1.56) 0.545 0.96 (0.68-1.36) 0.821 0.84 (0.61-1.16) 0.271
Alcohol Consumption         
Not At All 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Less than Once a Month 1.39 (0.81-2.39) 0.235 0.92 (0.66-1.29) 0.602 0.95 (0.65-1.38) 0.773 0.51 (0.30-0.87) 0.017
More than Twice a Month 1.05 (0.66-1.66) 0.852 0.73 (0.21-2.53) 0.603 0.91 (0.55-1.50) 0.704 0.94 (0.34-2.60) 0.893
Moderate Intensity Activity         
Yes 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
No 0.98 (0.67-1.43) 0.917 1.15 (0.74-1.77) 0.52 1.24 (0.89-1.71) 0.198 1.26 (0.80-1.98) 0.305
Daily Energy Intake (kcal)* 1.00 (1.00-1.00) 0.018 1.00 (1.00-1.00) 0.142 1.00 (1.00-1.00) 0.459 1.00 (1.00-1.00) 0.215
Race         
Non-Hispanic White    1     1  
Mexican American    1.70 (1.01-2.87) 0.048    1.37 (0.62-3.05) 0.414
Other Hispanic    2.35 (1.17-4.70) 0.019    2.08 (1.18-3.67) 0.015
Non-Hispanic Black    2.03 (1.20-3.44) 0.011    1.87 (1.12-3.12) 0.019
Other Race (Including Multiracial)    1.86 (0.78-4.42) 0.149    3.46 (1.44-8.30) 0.008
Estimated number of Population 23,681,690   84,085,965   23,193,263   78,989,240