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Table 2 Characteristics of Women participants stratified by diabetes (diagnosed after age 20) using the South Korea NHANES 2010 and the United States NHANES 2009–2010

From: Do early onset and pack-years of smoking increase risk of type II diabetes?

  South Korean women P-value of Chi-square U.S. women P-value of Chi-square P-value of Chi-square
  (n = 4,094, Est. population = 23,193,263) (n = 1,558, Est. population = 78,989,240) Korea Vs. U.S.
  With diabetes Without diabetes With diabetes Without diabetes With diabetes Without diabetes
Variables (n = 223, 5.4%) (n = 3,871, 94.6%)   (n = 193, 12.4%) (n = 1,365, 87.6%)  
Smoking Onset Age (%)**         
Never Smoked 206 (92.4) 3,558 (91.9) 0.002 99 (51.3) 1,038 (76.0) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
≥26 years 14 (6.3) 101 (2.6) 10 (5.2) 24 (1.8)
21–25 years 1 (0.5) 66 (1.7) 14 (7.3) 48 (3.5)
16–20 years 1 (0.5) 127 (3.3) 47 (24.4) 189 (13.9)
<16 years 1 (0.5) 19 (0.5) 23 (11.9) 66 (4.8)
Smoking Pack-years [10 PY]* 0.06 ± 0.45 0.04 ± 0.3 0.296 1.2 ± 2.7 0.4 ± 1.2 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Age (Years)* 63.5 ± 12.3 38.9 ± 22.2 <.0001 61.8 ± 12.1 48.6 ± 17.8 <.0001 0.46 <.0001
BMI (kg/m 2 )* 25.0 ± 3.7 22.0 ± 4.1 <.0001 33.8 ± 7.7 29.0 ± 7.2 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Family Income Percentile (%)**         
<25 % 88 (39.5) 679 (17.5) <.0001 79 (40.9) 337 (24.7) <.0001 0.576 <.0001
25 % –50 % 62 (27.8) 989 (25.6) 56 (29.0) 341 (25.0)
51 % –75 % 41 (18.4) 1,134 (29.3) 28 (14.5) 267 (19.6)
>75 % 32 (14.4) 1,069 (27.6) 30 (15.5) 420 (30.8)
Education (%)**         
Less than Elementary School 155 (69.5) 1,687 (43.6) <.0001 27 (14.0) 86 (6.3) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Less than Middle School 21 (9.4) 385 (10.0) 47 (24.4) 155 (11.4)
High School Diploma 38 (17.0) 947 (24.5) 38 (19.7) 275 (20.2)
At least some College 9 (4.0) 852 (22.0) 81 (42.0) 849 (62.2)
Marital Status (%)**         
Married 138 (61.9) 2,142 (55.3) <.0001 90 (46.6) 709 (51.9) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Other 85 (38.1) 1,729 (44.7) 103 (53.4) 656 (48.1)
Alcohol Consumption (%)**         
Not At All 128 (57.4) 1,929(49.8) 0.081 92 (47.7) 272 (19.9) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Less than Once a Month 59 (26.5) 1,159(29.9) 96 (49.7) 1,062 (77.8)
More than Twice a Month 36 (16.1) 783(20.2) 5 (2.6) 31 (2.3)
Moderate Intensity Activity (%)         
Yes 67 (30.0) 1,170 (30.2) 0.955 47 (24.4) 421 (30.8) <.0001 0.011 <.0001
No 156 (70.0) 2,701 (69.8) 146 (75.7) 944 (69.2)
Daily Energy Intake (Kcal)* 1,603.1 ± 636 1,702.9 ± 658 0.027 1,616.0 ± 634 1,795.0 ± 693 <.0001 0.56 <.0001
Race (%)**         
Non-Hispanic Whites     76 (39.4) 739 (54.1) 0.001 - -
Mexican Americans     36 (18.7) 218 (16.0)
Other Hispanics     20 (10.4) 147 (10.8)
Non-Hispanic Blacks     52 (26.9) 205 (15.0)
Other Races (Including Multiracial)     9 (4.7) 56 (4.1)    
  1. **Mean ± SD.
  2. **Frequency (%).