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Table 1 Characteristics of Men participants stratified by diabetes (diagnosed after age 20) using the South Korea NHANES 2010 and the United States NHANES 2009–2010

From: Do early onset and pack-years of smoking increase risk of type II diabetes?

  South Korean men P-value of Chi-square U.S. men P-value
of Chi-square
P-value of Chi-square
(n = 3,179, Est. population = 23,681,690) (n = 1,713, Est. population = 84,085,965) Korea Vs. U.S.
  With diabetes Without diabetes With diabetes Without diabetes With diabetes Without diabetes
Variables (n = 225, 7.1%) (n = 2,954, 92.9%)   (n = 265, 15.5%) (n = 1,448, 84.5%)  
Smoking Onset Age (%)**         
Never Smoked 28 (12.4) 1,372 (46.5) <.0001 107 (40.4) 918 (63.4) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
≥26 years 21 (9.3) 106 (3.6) 9 (3.4) 21 (1.5)
21–25 years 49 (21.8) 347 (11.8) 19 (7.2) 59 (4.1)
16–20 years 107 (47.6) 1,021 (34.6) 79 (29.8) 302 (20.9)
<16 years 20 (8.9) 108 (3.7) 51 (19.3) 148 (10.2)
Smoking Pack-years [10 PY]* 2.5 ± 2.2 1.1 ± 1.7 <.0001 1.8 ± 2.8 0.8 ± 2.0 <.0001 0.002 <.0001
Age (Years)* 63.0 ± 11.0 36.2 ± 23.7 <.0001 62.5 ± 11.6 50.2 ± 17.9 <.0001 0.654 <.0001
BMI (kg/m 2 )* 24.2 ± 3.2 22.1 ± 4.1 <.0001 31.8 ± 6.7 29.1 ± 5.6 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Family Income Percentile (%)**         
<25 % 85 (37.8) 465 (15.7) <.0001 76 (28.7) 286 (19.8) 0.009 0.029 <.0001
25 % –50 % 47 (20.9) 801 (27.1) 82 (30.9) 392 (27.1)
51 % –75 % 44 (19.6) 872 (29.5) 59 (22.3) 312 (21.6)
>75 % 49 (21.8) 816 (27.6) 48 (18.1) 458 (31.6)
Education (%)**         
Less than Elementary School 67 (29.8) 1,223 (41.4) <.0001 47 (17.7) 151 (10.4) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Less than Middle School 49 (21.8) 344 (11.7) 43 (16.2) 181 (12.5)
High School Diploma 68 (30.2) 696 (23.6) 61 (23.0) 311 (21.5)
At least some College 41 (18.2) 691 (23.4) 114 (43.0) 805 (55.6)
Marital Status (%)**         
Married 201 (89.3) 1,585 (53.7) <.0001 178 (67.2) 927 (64.0) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Other 24 (10.7) 1,369 (46.3) 87 (32.8) 521 (36.0)
Alcohol Consumption (%)**         
Not At All 66 (29.3) 1,216 (41.2) 0.002 88 (33.2) 265 (18.3) <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Less than Once a Month 43 (19.1) 423 (14.3) 171 (64.5) 1,123 (77.6)
More than Twice a Month 116 (51.6) 1,315 (44.5) 6 (2.3) 60 (4.1)
Moderate Intensity Activity (%)         
Yes 70 (31.1) 1015 (34.4) 0.322 88 (33.2) 614 (42.4) <.0001 0.621 <.0001
No 155 (68.9) 1939 (65.6) 177 (66.8) 834 (57.6)
Daily Energy Intake (Kcal)* 2,087.6 ± 817 2,268.6 ± 967 0.006 2,046.7 ± 1009 2,428.5 ± 991 0.001 0.627 <.0001
Race (%)**         
Non-Hispanic Whites     108 (40.8) 769 (53.1) 0.067 - -
Mexican Americans     57 (21.5) 272 (18.8)
Other Hispanics     31 (11.7) 120 (8.3)
Non-Hispanic Blacks     59 (22.3) 221 (15.3)
Other Races (Including Multiracial)     10 (3.8) 66 (4.6)
  1. **Mean ± SD.
  2. **Frequency (%).