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Table 3 Most frequent applications of emotional and instrumental feeding practices for relevant product categories

From: Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals

Practices Most frequently applied using
Instrumental feeding      
Products withheld as punishment Candy (82.4%) Cookies (52.9%), Candy bars (41.2%) Ice cream (36.8%) Pastry and cake (26.5%)
  Chocolate (52.9%) Chips, nuts and savory snacks (41.2%)   
Products used as reward Candy (59.4%) Ice cream (43.4%) Chocolate (26.4%) Chips, nuts and savory snacks (25.5%) Cookies (24.5%)
Emotional feeding      
Products used to comfort Candy (66.2%) Ice cream (30.8%) Cookies (29.2%) Chocolate (15.4%) Chips, nuts and savory snacks (12.3%)