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Table 2 Percentages of mothers using emotional and instrumental feeding practices in the total group and demographic subgroups (N = 359)

From: Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals

  Instrumental feeding Emotional feeding
Groups Punishment (%, CI) Reward (%, CI) Comfort (%, CI)
Total group 18.9 (15–23) 29.5 (25–34) 18.1 (14–22)
Age of mother    
(1). ≤ 30 (n = 28) 28.6 (11–46) 39.3 (20–59) 32.1 (14–51)
(2). 30–35 (n = 79) 26.6 (17–37) 44.3 (33–56) 26.6 (17–37)
(3). 35–40 (n = 119) 15.1 (9–22) 23.5 (16–31) 17.6 (11–25)
(4). 40–45 (n = 99) 14.1 (7–21) 21.2 (13–29) 8.1 (3–14)
(5). ≥ 45 (n = 34) 18.2 (6–35) 30.3 (16–49) 18.2 (4–31)
Sign. contrasts   3,4 < 2 4 < 1,2,3
Education of mother 1    
(1). Low (n = 77) 19.5 (10–29) 26.0 (16–36) 19.5 (10–29)
(2). Moderate (n = 168) 16.8 (11–23) 24.0 (18–31) 16.2 (10–22)
(3). High (n = 114) 21.1 (13–29) 39.5 (30–49) 20.2 (13–28)
Sign. contrasts   2 < 3  
SEP 2    
(1). Low (n = 120) 21.7 (14–29) 33.3 (25–42) 22.5 (15–30)
(2). Intermediate (n = 114) 20.2 (13–28) 21.9 (14–30) 12.3 (6–18)
(3). High (n = 125) 15.2 (9–22) 32.8 (24–41) 19.2 (12–26)
Sign. contrasts   2 < 1,3 2 < 1,3
BMI of mother (kg/m 2 ) 3    
(1). Underweight (n = 11) 36.4 (2–70) 27.3 (4–59) 0.0
(2). Normal weight (n = 175) 17.1 (12–23) 32.6 (26–40) 17.7 (12–23)
(3). Overweight (n = 101) 20.0 (13–29) 25.0 (17–34) 22.0 (14–30)
(4). Obese (n = 71) 18.3 (9–28) 26.8 (16–37) 16.9 (8–26)
Sign. contrasts    
Age of child    
(1). ≤4–5 (n = 142) 24.6 (17–32) 39.4 (31–48) 20.4 (14–27))
(2). 6–9 (n = 133) 20.3 (13–27) 27.1 (19–35) 19.5 (13–26
(3). 10–12 (n = 84) 7.1 (2–13) 16.7 (9–25) 11.9 (5–19)
Sign. contrasts 3 < 1,2 3 < 1  
Gender of child    
(1). Boys (n = 198) 18.7 (13–24) 33.3 (27–40) 20.7 (15–26)
(2). Girls (n = 161) 19.3 (13–25) 24.8 (18–32) 14.9 (9–20)
Sign. Contrasts   2 < 1  
  1. Note: this table only shows the independent variables for which significant contrasts were found; significant contrasts were retrieved by comparisons made among the numbered subgroups by repeating the logistic regression analysis using a different reference group for each independent variable each time.
  2. 1Educational level (low [primary or basic vocational education], intermediate [secondary vocational school or high school] and high [higher professional education or university]) [36].
  3. 2Socioeconomic position (SEP) is based on a factor score (range -4 [high] to 4 [low]) calculated from four indicators of SEP for all Dutch postal code areas, i.e. mean income, percentage of low income households, percentage of residents without a paid job and percentage of households with intermediate or low education [35].
  4. 3According to standard BMI classification by the World health Organization [33].