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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic and other characteristics of mothers and children included in the study (N = 359)

From: Emotional and instrumental feeding practices of Dutch mothers regarding foods eaten between main meals

Characteristics Mean (SD) %
Characteristics of the mother   
Age 38.4 (5.6)  
30   7.8
30–35   22.0
35–40   33.1
40–45   27.6
≥ 45   9.5
Educational level 1   
Low   21.4
Intermediate   46.8
High   31.8
SEP 2   
Low   33.4
Intermediate   31.8
High   34.8
BMI (kg/m 2 ) in categories 3 25.8 (5.1)  
Underweight ≤ 18,49 kg/m2   3.1
Normal 18,5–24,99 kg/m2   48.9
Overweight 25–29,99 kg/m2   28.2
Obese 30 kg/m2 and above   19.8
Perceived body size   
(A little bit) too thin   4.8
Normal weight   33.1
(A little bit) too heavy   62.1
Family situation   
Living together with biological father of all children   76.9
Living together with partner (not biological father of all children)   8.1
Living alone with children   12.8
Other   2.2
Number of children living at home   
1   22.6
2   56.3
3   16.4
4 or more   4.7
Child care use   
0 days   61.6
≥ 1 day   38.4
Familiar with NNC recommendation   
Yes   20.3
No   79.7
Characteristics of the child  
Age in years 7.0 (2.7)  
≤ 4   21.7
5   17.8
6   11.4
7   11.1
8   7.8
9   6.7
10   7.5
11   8.4
≥12   7.5
Gender   
Boys   55.2
Girls   44.8
Perceived body size   
(A little bit) too thin   20.9
Normal weight   73.3
(A little bit) too heavy   5.8
Ethnicity 4   
Dutch origin   89.7
Non-Dutch origin   10.3
  1. 1Educational level (low [primary or basic vocational education], intermediate [secondary vocational school or high school] and high [higher professional education or university]) [36].
  2. 2Socioeconomic position (SEP) is based on a factor score (range -4 [high] to 4 [low]) calculated from four indicators of SEP for all Dutch postal code areas, i.e. mean income, percentage of low-income households, percentage of residents without a paid job and percentage of households with intermediate or low education [35]. The SEP was divided into tertiles with cut-off points: (low [2.62–0.27], intermediate [0.27– -0.44], high [-0.44– -2.68]).
  3. 3According to standard BMI classification by the World health Organization [33].
  4. 4Non-Dutch origin: having at least one parent born abroad [34].