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Table 4 Objectively measured physical activity intensities and types between intervention and control schools at the three time points

From: Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

Physical activity measure Baseline Post-test (7-Weeks) Follow-up (8-Months)
Direct observation (Intensity) Percentage comparison of mean children in each physical activity intensity within direct observation scans#
  Intervention Control p Intervention Control p Intervention Control* p
Sedentary behaviour (%) 7.4 (61.5) 9.7 (61.5) 0.99 6.7 (43.6) 8.0 (49.2) <0.01 5.5 (40.0) 7.1 (55.2) <0.001
Moderate physical activity (%) 3.5 (28.8) 4.3 (27.5) 0.61 4.3 (28.1) 4.7 (28.7) 0.80 5.3 (39.1) 3.9 (30.1) <0.001
Vigorous physical activity (%) 1.2 (9.7) 1.7 (11.0) 0.66 4.3 (28.3) 3.6 (22.1) <0.01 2.9 (20.9) 1.9 (14.7) 0.01
Direct observation (Activity) Percentage comparison of the predominant activity type within direct observation scans #
Intervention Control p Intervention Control p Intervention Control * p
Australian rules football (%) - 12 (5.0) - 11 (8.8) 54 (22.5) 0.30 - 6 (1.9) -
Baseball/Softball (%) - 3 (1.3) - - - - - - -
Basketball (%) - 11 (4.6) - - 15 (6.3) - - 3 (1.0) -
Cricket (%) 5 (4.0) 3 (1.3) 0.83 1 (0.8) - - 2 (1.6) - -
Down-ball (%) - 36 (15.0) - - 1 (0.4) - - - -
Imaginative play (Fixed equipment) (%) - 69 (28.7) - - 70 (29.2) - - 76 (24.4) -
Imaginative play (No equipment) (%) 7 (5.6) 12 (5.0) 0.95 7 (5.6) 7 (2.8) 0.79 4 (3.2) 6 (2.6) 0.96
Imaginative play movable/recycled materials (%) - - - 66 (52.8) - - 30 (24.0) - -
Construction with recycled materials (%) - - - 16 (12.8) - - 33 (26.4) - -
No identifiable activity (%) 59 (47.2) 70 (29.2) 0.04 9 (7.2) 37 (15.4) 0.52 7 (5.6) 78 (25.0) 0.25
Play with loose sports equipment (%) - - - - 9 (3.8) - - 40 (12.8) -
Racquet sports (%) 10 (8.0) 4 (1.7) 0.66 - - - - - -
Sandpit play (%) 12 (9.6) - - - 33 (13.8) - 6 (4.8) 39 (12.5) 0.58
Soccer (%) 32 (25.6) 18 (7.4) 0.18 15 (12.0) 14 (5.8) 0.56 43 (34.4) 62 (19.8) 0.09
Total lunchtime target setting scans (%) 125 (100) 240 (100) - 125 (100) 240 (100) - 125 (100) 320 (100) -
  1. #The p values are based on Chi-square test for comparing proportions between intervention and control schools; *Two more lunchtime target defined areas were introduced at the control school during follow-up; Intervention school lunchtime = 30 minutes; Control school lunchtime = 45 minutes; Direct observation utilised SOPLAY [61].