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Table 3 Multi-level linear regression model of measures between intervention and control schools at baseline, post-test and follow-up from the LEAP intervention

From: Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

Measurement tool Category Time Intervention (n = 123) Control (n = 152) Treatment effect# p value p value
    Δ (95% CI) Δ (95% CI)   (treatment effect) (overall interaction effect)
Objective measures  
Pedometer Steps per minute Baseline   <0.001
Post-test 9.48 (5.17-13.78) -3.60 (-7.43-0.24) 13.08 (7.31-18.84) <0.001
Follow-up -5.44 (-9.76--1.12) -11.37 (-15.26--7.48) 5.93 (0.14-11.72) 0.05
Distance per minute (metres) Baseline   <0.001
Post-test 6.44 (3.34-9.55) -2.88 (-6.13-0.38) 9.32 (4.82-13.82) <0.001
Follow-up -4.22 (-7.34--1.09) -8.69 (-11.95--5.42) 4.47 (-0.02-9.96) 0.05
Self-report measures  
PEDS QL 4.0 [57] Physical health scale of quality of life Baseline   0.14
Post-test 6.07 (0.36-11.77) 1.46 (-2.66-5.57) 4.61 (-2.42-11.64) 0.20
Follow-up 4.76 (-1.02-10.54) -2.08 (-6.10-1.94) 6.84 (-0.10-13.78) 0.05
Psychosocial scale of quality of life Baseline   0.09
Post-test 5.74 (1.13-10.35) 0.28 (-3.05-3.61) 5.46 (-0.22-11.14) 0.06
Follow-up -0.59 (-5.27-4.09) -0.08 (-3.34-3.18) -0.51 (-6.11-5.09) 0.86
Overall quality of life Baseline   0.17
Post-test 6.00 (1.67-10.34) 0.90 (-2.23-4.03) 5.10 (-0.24-10.45) 0.06
Follow-up 2.01 (-2.38-6.41) -0.95 (-4.01-2.11) 2.96 (-2.31-8.23) 0.27
PACES Survey [64] Enjoyment of physical activity Baseline   0.09
Post-test -0.06 (-0.29-0.18) -0.38 (-0.54--0.21) 0.32 (0.04-0.61) 0.03
Follow-up -0.21 (-0.45-0.02) -0.34 (-0.51--0.18) 0.13 (-0.15-0.41) 0.36
LEAP Questionnaire [56] Intra-personal level enjoyment Baseline   0.11
Post-test 0.08 (-0.11-0.28) -0.16 (-0.30--0.02) 0.24 (0.004-0.48) 0.05
Follow-up -0.04 (-0.24-0.16) -0.08 (-0.21-0.06) 0.03 (-0.20-0.27) 0.78
Inter-personal level enjoyment Baseline   0.23
Post-test 0.07 (-0.11 (0.25) -0.13 (-0.26-0.01) 0.20 (-0.03-0.42) 0.09
Follow-up -0.01 (-0.20-0.18) -0.11 (-0.24-0.02) 0.10 (-0.12-0.33) 0.37
Physical environment/policy level enjoyment Baseline   0.52
Post-test 0.08 (-0.09-0.26) -0.04 (-0.17-0.08) 0.12 (-0.09-0.34) 0.26
   Follow-up 0.05 (-0.13-0.23) -0.01 (-0.14-0.11) 0.06 (-0.14-0.27) 0.57  
  1. PEDS QL 4.0 [57] = Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory; PACES [64] = Physical Activity Children’s Enjoyment Scale; LEAP [56] = Lunchtime Enjoyment of Activity and Play; Δ = Adjusted mean change between baseline and post intervention from the multi-level linear regression model; Model adjusted by age, sex and baseline measurements; #Effects in intervention school compared with the control school after adjustment for age, sex and baseline measures from the multi-level linear regression model; 95% CI = Confidence interval.