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Table 1 Univariate analysis of factors associated with depression

From: Prevalence of depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study in Palestine

Variable Total BDI-II depression score Unadjusted OR P-value
N = 294
(95% CI)
≥ 16 < 16
N = 120 N = 174
Age (years)      
  ≤ 65 216 (73.5%) 85 (39.4%) 131 (60.6%) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.3) 0.40
  > 65 78 (26.5%) 35 (44.9%) 43 (55.1%) Reference
Gender      
  Male 130 (44.2%) 43 (33.1%) 87 (66.9%) Reference 0.02
  Female 164 (55.8%) 77 (47.0%) 87 (53.0%) 1.8 (1.1 – 2.9)  
Education      
  Illiterate 87 (29.6%) 47 (39.2%) 40 (23.0%) Reference  
  Elementary 126 (42.9%) 53 (44.2%) 73 (42.0%) 0.6 (0.4 – 1.1) 0.08
  High school 41 (13.9%) 13 (10.80%) 28 (16.1%) 0.4 (0.2 – 0.9) 0.02
  College 40 (13.6%) 7 (5.8%) 33 (19.0%) 0.2 (0.1 – 0.5) < 0.01
Marital status      
  Married 243 (82.7%) 101 (41.6%) 142 (58.4%) 1.2 (0.6 – 2.2) 0.58
  Others 51 (17.3%) 19 (37.3%) 32 (62.7%) Reference
Currently smoking      
  Yes 71 (24.1%) 32 (45.1%) 39 (54.9%) 1.3 (0.7 – 2.2) 0.40
  No 166 (56.5%) 79 (47.6%) 84 (52.4%) Reference
Working      
  Yes 62 (21.1%) 12 (19.4%) 50 (80.6%) Reference < 0.01
  No 232 (78.9%) 108 (46.6%) 124 (53.4%) 3.6 (1.8 – 7.7)
Duration of illness 10 (5 – 16) 12 (6 – 16.75) 10 (5 – 15) 1.0 (0.9 – 1.05) 0.32
Number of additional illness      
  ≤ 1 114 (38.8%) 36 (31.6%) 78 (68.4%) Reference 0.01
  ≥ 2 180 (61.2%) 84 (46.9%) 96 (53.3%) 1.9 (1.2 – 3.1)
Number of anti-diabetic medication      
  ≤ 1 112 (38.1%) 44 (39.3%) 68 (60.7%) Reference 0.68
  ≥ 2 182 (61.9%) 76 (41.8%) 106 (58.2%) 1.1 (0.7 – 1.8)
Insulin use      
  Yes 147 (50%) 64 (43.5%) 83 (56.5%) 1.25 (0.8 – 2.0) 0.34
  No 147 (50%) 56 (38.1%) 91 (61.9%) Reference
HbA1C      
  < 7 52 (17.7%) 23 (44.2%) 29 (55.8%) Reference 0.58
  ≥ 7 242 (82.3%) 97 (40.1%) 145 (59.9%) 0.8 (0.5 – 1.5)
Medication adherence score      
  < 6 167 (56.8%) 86 (51.5%) 81 (48.5%) Reference < 0.01
  ≥ 6 127 (43.2%) 34 (26.8%) 91 (73.2%) 0.3 (0.2 – 0.6)  
BMI     
 < 25 30 (10.2%) 7 (23.3%) 23 (76.7%) Reference  
 25 – 29 98 (33.3%) 34 (34.7%) 64 (65.3%) 1.8 (0.7 – 4.5) 0.25
 ≥ 30 166 (56.5%) 79 (47.6%) 84 (52.4%) 3.0 (1.2 – 7.3) 0.02
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory – Second edition, BMI Body Mass Index, MMAS-8 Morisky Medication Adherence Scale–8 items, OR Odds Ratio, HbA1C Glycated Hemoglobin.