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Table 3 Confounding patterns of the association between TV exposure between ages 2 and 5 years and teacher report of bullying involvement in early elementary school

From: Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

  Teacher report (N = 3423)
TV exposure latent class Model 1: Unadjusted Model 1 adjusted for maternal socio-demographic covariates a Model 1 adjusted for maternal psychosocial covariates b Model 1 adjusted for child socio-demographic covariates c Model 1 adjusted for child internalizing and externalizing problems d
  OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
  Risk of being a bully
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.07 (0.79-1.44) 0.66 1.00 (0.74-1.35) 1.00 1.07 (0.80-1.44) 0.65 1.05 (0.78-1.42) 0.74 1.05 (0.78-1.42) 0.73
Mid-high 1.35 (0.98-1.84) 0.07 1.16 (0.84-1.60) 0.37 1.33 (0.97-1.82) 0.08 1.27 (0.92-1.76) 0.14 1.32 (0.96-1.81) 0.09
High 1.74 (1.22-2.50) 0.002 1.30 (0.90-1.90) 0.16 1.70 (1.18-2.44) 0.004 1.50 (1.03-2.21) 0.04 1.71 (1.19-2.48) 0.004
  Risk of being a victim
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.17 (0.71-1.92) 0.54 1.13 (0.68-1.86) 0.63 1.16 (0.71-1.91) 0.55 1.13 (0.69-1.87) 0.62 1.17 (0.71-1.92) 0.54
Mid-high 1.11 (0.64-1.95) 0.71 1.03 (0.58-1.84) 0.91 1.09 (0.62-1.92) 0.77 1.00 (0.56-1.76) 0.99 1.09 (0.61-1.92) 0.77
High 2.38 (1.33-4.28) 0.004 1.93 (1.03-3.66) 0.04 2.27 (1.25-4.12) 0.007 1.94 (1.02-3.44) 0.04 2.20 (1.21-3.99) 0.01
  Risk of being a bully-victim
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.21 (0.88-1.65) 0.24 1.08 (0.79-1.48) 0.63 1.22 (0.89-1.66) 0.21 1.17 (0.86-1.60) 0.32 1.18 (0.87-1.62) 0.28
Mid-high 1.73 (1.25-2.40) 0.001 1.33 (0.94-1.87) 0.11 1.68 (1.21-2.33) 0.002 1.61 (1.16-2.24) 0.005 1.68 (1.21-2.33) 0.002
High 2.11 (1.42-3.13) <0.001 1.39 (0.91-2.11) 0.13 1.98 (1.33-2.95) 0.001 1.79 (1.19-2.71) 0.005 2.01 (1.35-3.00) 0.001
  1. Effect estimates are derived from multinomial regression analysis. Reference group: 'uninvolved in bullying’ children.
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age, education, income and marital status. bAdjusted for parity, maternal symptoms of depression and parenting stress. cAdjusted for child gender, age, national origin, day-care attendance. dAdjusted for child internalizing and externalizing problems. For fully adjusted model see Table 2.