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Table 1 Child and maternal characteristics

From: Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

  Teacher report of bullying involvement (N = 3423) Peer/self-report of bullying involvement (N = 1176)
Child characteristics N % a N % a
Mean age (years, SD in months) 3143 6.8 (3.03) 1176 7.6 (8.95)
Gender (% boys) 3422 50.6 1176 49.1
National origin 3400   1171  
  Dutch 2146 63.1 767 65.5
  Other Western 316 9.3 131 11.2
  Non-western 938 27.6 273 23.3
Bullying involvement 3423   1176  
  Uninvolved 2366 69.1 705 60.0
  Bully 502 14.7 176 15.0
  Victim 139 4.1 179 15.2
  Bully-victim 416 12.1 116 9.8
Internalizing problems b (mean score, SD) 2892 5.07 (4.64) 997 4.79 (4.21)
Externalizing problems b (mean score, SD) 2908 10.60 (6.69) 1001 10.35 (6.55)
Day-care attendance (% not attending) 2872 33.4 992 29.4
TV exposure classes 3423   1176  
  Low 603 17.6 243 20.7
  Mid-low 1448 42.3 520 44.2
  Mid-high 951 27.8 292 24.8
  High 421 12.3 121 10.3
Exposure to violent TV/video content at age 5 years 2999   1053  
  No 1434 47.8 499 47.4
  Yes 1565 52.2 554 52.6
Maternal characteristics     
Mean age (years, SD) 3422 31.40 (4.75) 1176 32.09 (4.78)
Educational level 3241   1113  
  Low 569 17.6 143 12.9
  Mid-low 978 30.2 327 29.4
  Mid-high 747 23.1 287 25.8
  High 947 29.2 356 32.0
Monthly household income 2740   980  
  <1200 (below social security level) 329 12.0 110 11.2
  1200-2000 (average) 490 17.9 167 17.0
  >2000 (modal) 1921 70.1 703 71.7
Marital status (% single) 3217 8.7 1114 9.1
Depression symptoms c (mean score, SD) 2972 0.13 (0.32) 1025 0.13 (0.31)
Parenting stress (mean score, SD) d 2935 0.31 (0.30) 1007 0.32 (0.30)
Parity (% first-born) 3306 56.5 1134 56.2
  1. aUnless otherwise indicated.
  2. bAssessed with CBCL1½-5, the Dutch version of Child Behaviour Checklist.
  3. cMeasured with Brief Symptom Inventory.
  4. dParenting stress was measured with the Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index–Kort.