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Table 1 Basic characteristics and vitamin D levels in diabetic and healthy control adults

From: Lower vitamin D status is more common among Saudi adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 than in non-diabetics

  Control Type 1 diabetes P value
N 60 60  
Gender (M/F) 32/28 34/26 0.71
Age 36.7 ± 3.6 25.9 ± 16.1 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 28.2 ± 6.8 26.4 ± 6.1 0.12
Waist (cm) 83.1 ± 13.2 71.4 ± 14.1 <0.001
Hips (cm) 96.1 ± 16.5 80.1 ± 27.0 0.001
Waist-hips ratio 0.96 ± 0.16 0.87 ± 0.18 0.004
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 1.1 0.78
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.2 ± 0.63 13.8 ± 7.7 <0.001
HDL (mmol/L) 0.84 ± 0.34 1.1 ± 0.42 0.002
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.5 ± 0.74 1.4 ± 0.86 0.97
LDL (mmol/L) 3.4 ± 0.95 3.5 ± 0.91 0.81
Vitamin D (nmol/L) 33.4 ± 1.6 28.1 ± 1.4 0.03
Vitamin D deficiency (%)    
  50-25 nmol/L 25 (41.7) 40 (66.7) 0.19
  25.0-12.5 nmol/L 19 (31.7) 19 (31.7)
  <12.5 nmol/L 3 (5) 2 (3.3)
Calcium (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 0.36 2.2 ± 0.35 0.01
Fish (g/week) 724.9 ± 163.7 150 ± 52.9 <0.001
Liver 224.5 ± 141.2 360 ± 203.2 0.13
Milk    
  0 glasses/day 26 (43.4) 32 (53.3) 0.16
  1-2 glasses/day 25 (41.6) 25 (41.7)
  3-4 glasses/day 9 (15.0) 3 (5.0)