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Table 4 The proportion of refractive error with visual impairment (one or both eyes) by sex, grade, and age*

From: Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China

  Myopia Hyperopia Astigmatism
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Sex    
Male 577 (56.79) 35(50.00) 453(54.98)
Female 439 (43.21) 35(50.00) 371(45.02)
Grade    
1 73(7.19) 16(22.86) 114(13.83)
2 140(13.78) 18(25.71) 127(15.41)
3 200(19.69) 11(15.71) 162(19.66)
4 281(27.66) 18(25.71) 185(22.45)
5 322(31.69) 7(10.00) 236(28.64)
Age (y)    
7–8 143(14.07) 26(37.14) 139(16.87)
9–10 384(37.80) 27(38.57) 252(30.58)
11–12 489(48.13) 17(24.29) 433(52.55)
All 1016(100) 70 (100) 824(100)
  1. *Refraction data were available for 1196 children with visual impairment performed cycloplegic auto-refraction measurements.