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Table 2 Possible predicting factors in 7th grade (12–13 year olds) for smoking in 12th grade (17–18 year olds)

From: Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

  Non-smokers 12th grade Smokers 12th grade Univariable logistic regression 12th grade Multivariable logistic regression 12th grade (n = 564)
Factors 7th grade n (%) n (%) OR CI OR CI
Gender (n = 646)
Boys 232 (80) 60 (20) 1.00 Ref 1.00 Ref
Girls 252 (71) 102 (29) 1.56 1.09-2.26 1.64 1.08-2.49
Age (n = 643)
12 years old 122 (80) 30 (20) 1.00 Ref   
13 years old 345 (73) 129 (27) 1.52 0.97-2.38   
14 years old 15 (88) 2 (12) 0.54 0.12-2.50   
Country of birth (n = 645)
Born in Sweden 453 (74) 156 (26) 1.00 Ref   
Born outside Sweden 30 (83) 6 (17) 0.58 0.24-1.42   
Residence (n = 627)
City/Town 263 (75) 87 (25) 1.00 Ref   
Village 122 (78) 35 (22) 0.87 0.56-1.36   
Rural area 86 (72) 34 (28) 1.20 0.75-1.90   
Parental education (n = 641)
High 277 (79) 73 (21) 1.00 Ref   
Low 203 (70) 88 (30) 1.64 1.15-2.36   
Mood in family (n = 632)
Good 436 (77) 133 (23) 1.00 Ref   
Not good 36 (57) 27 (43) 2.46 1.44-4.20   
Self-rated health (n = 641)
High 257 (78) 74 (22) 1.00 Ref   
Medium 203 (75) 68 (25) 1.16 0.80-1.70   
Low 20 (51) 19 (49) 3.30 1.67-6.51   
Self-esteem (n = 635)
High 293 (81) 69 (19) 1.00 Ref 1.00 Ref
Medium 154 (70) 66 (30) 1.82 1.23-2.69 1.57 1.03-2.38
Low 28 (53) 25 (47) 3.79 2.08-6.91 2.79 1.46-5.33
Attitudes towards smoking (n = 640)
Very negative 433 (78) 119 (22) 1.00 Ref 1.00 Ref
Not very negative 46 (52) 42 (48) 3.32 2.09-5.29 2.81 1.70-4.66
Physical exercise (n = 617)
High 360 (75) 118 (25) 1.00 Ref   
Low 98 (70) 41 (30) 1.28 0.84-1.94   
Binge drinking (n = 634)
Never 456 (77) 136 (23) 1.00 Ref   
Once or more 20 (48) 22 (52) 3.69 1.95-6.96   
Snus use (n = 637)
No 452 (77) 133 (23) 1.00 Ref 1.00 Ref
Previous or current use 24 (46) 28 (54) 3.96 2.22-7.07 3.43 1.78-6.62
Smoking (n = 636)
No 473 (77) 142 (23) 1.00 Ref   
Yes 6 (29) 15 (71) 8.33 3.17-21.86