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Table 1 Characteristics of study variables by gender and frequency of spicy food eating

From: Spicy food consumption is associated with adiposity measures among half a million Chinese people: the China Kadoorie Biobank study

  Male (n = 179,462) Female (n = 255,094)
  Never (n = 100,604) 1-2 d/wk (n = 12,813) 3-5 d/wk (n = 11,408) Daily (n = 54,637) Never (n = 149,106) 1-2 d/wk (n = 15,422) 3-5 d/wk (n = 13,999) Daily (n = 76,567)
Age (year) 53.0 (0.03) 49.3 (0.09) 49.2 (0.10) 51.1 (0.05) 51.8 (0.03) 48.0 (0.08) 48.1 (0.09) 48.6 (0.04)
Study area (%)a         
Rural 47.7 (0.2) 40.1 (0.4) 39.0 (0.5) 81.8 (0.2) 45.2 (0.1) 40.5 (0.4) 40.9 (0.4) 81.1 (0.1)
Urban 52.3 (0.2) 59.9 (0.4) 61.0 (0.5) 18.2 (0.2) 54.8 (0.1) 59.5 (0.4) 59.1 (0.4) 18.9 (0.1)
Education level (%)b         
Illiterate and Elementary 42.7 (0.2) 39.9 (0.4) 39.5 (0.4) 40.5 (0.2) 57.4 (0.1) 53.3 (0.3) 52.5 (0.4) 53.7 (0.2)
Middle school 32.6 (0.2) 32.5 (0.4) 33.6 (0.4) 34.0 (0.3) 25.1 (0.1) 26.2 (0.3) 27.3 (0.4) 27.8 (0.2)
High school and above 24.8 (0.1) 27.5 (0.3) 26.9 (0.4) 25.5 (0.2) 17.5 (0.1) 20.5 (0.3) 20.2 (0.3) 18.5 (0.2)
Physical activity (MET-hours/day)b 22.4 (0.05) 22.1 (0.12) 22.4 (0.13) 22.5 (0.08) 20.3 (0.03) 20.7 (0.09) 21.1 (0.09) 20.9 (0.05)
Alcohol use (%)b         
Nondrinker 24.2 (0.17) 17.6 (0.35) 15.2 (0.35) 13.5 (0.15) 66.7 (0.12) 58.6 (0.33) 56.9 (0.35) 56.6 (0.20)
Ex-regular drinker 8.4 (0.11) 7.7 (0.26) 7.3 (0.27) 6.8 (0.13) 0.7 (0.03) 0.9 (0.08) 1.0 (0.09) 0.9 (0.03)
Occasional drinker 40.0 (0.18) 37.4 (0.42) 35.9 (0.44) 32.1 (0.25) 31.4 (0.12) 38.1 (0.32) 38.9 (0.34) 38.8 (0.19)
Regular drinker 27.4 (0.14) 37.3 (0.40) 41.6 (0.44) 47.6 (0.28) 1.2 (0.03) 2.4 (0.12) 3.1 (0.14) 3.7 (0.10)
Tobacco use (%)b         
Nonsmoker 17.8 (0.15) 13.5 (0.31) 12.2 (0.31) 10.1 (0.16) 96.4 (0.05) 95.1 (0.16) 94.3 (0.18) 94.3 (0.09)
Ex-regular smoker 13.3 (0.11) 12.4 (0.30) 12.2 (0.32) 11.8 (0.20) 0.7 (0.02) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.08) 0.9 (0.04)
Occasional smoker 13.1 (0.13) 11.9 (0.30) 11.1 (0.30) 8.8 (0.15) 1.3 (0.04) 2.2 (0.12) 2.3 (0.12) 2.1 (0.06)
Regular smoker 55.8 (0.18) 62.1 (0.44) 64.5 (0.45) 69.3 (0.26) 1.6 (0.04) 1.9 (0.11) 2.4 (0.12) 2.8 (0.07)
Strength of spicy food eating (%)b         
Weak         
Moderate NA 48.2 (0.4) 35.8 (0.4) 17.9 (0.2) NA 52.9 (0.4) 40.4 (0.3) 19.5 (0.2)
Strong NA 34.8 (0.5) 35.7 (0.5) 38.8 (0.2) NA 34.2 (0.5) 34.4 (0.4) 38.0 (0.2)
Duration of spicy food eating (%)b NA 17.1 (0.5) 28.5 (0.4) 43.3 (0.2) NA 12.9 (0.5) 25.1 (0.4) 42.4 (0.2)
Age started to eat spicy food regularly (year) NA 18.4 (0.08) 17.8 (0.08) 15.5 (0.04) NA 18.0 (0.07) 16.8 (0.07) 14.0 (0.03)
Number of years of eating spicy food# NA 32.1 (0.08) 32.8 (0.08) 35.0 (0.04) NA 30.5 (0.07) 31.7 (0.07) 34.5 (0.03)
Years of eating spicy food-to-age ratio (%)# NA 57.2 (0.2) 58.5 (0.2) 63.4 (0.1) NA 56.9 (0.1) 59.4 (0.1) 65.5 (0.1)
  1. Data are presented as adjusted mean (SE) or percentage (SE). Adjusted means and proportions were calculated by using multiple linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models, respectively. All P-heterogeneity and P-trend across subgroups are <0.001.
  2. aadjusted for age; b, adjusted for age and survey sites; #sample size are 788,853 in males and 105,982 in females.