Site-specific and overall effect of daily spicy food eating on BMI (a), BF% (b), WC (c) and WHtR (d) by gender groups. Each closed square represents the point estimate of the regression coefficient, and the horizontal bar represents its 95% confidence interval (CI), which was estimated by using multiple linear regression models. Adjustment was made for age, study sites, education, alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol drinking, smoking and survey site. The size of the square is proportional to the weight calculated by using the DerSimonian and Laird method. The overall point estimates, calculated in random effect models, are represented by dotted lines and closed diamonds, and the horizontal bar represents its 95% CI. BMI, body mass index; BF%, percentage body fat; WC, waist circumference; WHtR, WC-to-height ratio.