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Table 3 Triads with a prevalence ≥ 1% and an observed/expected ratio ≥ 2 by multimorbidity clusters in the male population with ≥ 3 chronic conditions (n = 54.987)

From: Reducing complexity: a visualisation of multimorbidity by combining disease clusters and triads

Cardiovascular and metabolic disorders O/E-ratio Prevalence in %
Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 3.5 1.3
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac insufficiency 3.3 1.7
Diabetes mellitus + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Neuropathies 3.3 1.4
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 3.2 1.2
Diabetes mellitus + Obesity + Liver diseases 3.0 1.5
Severe vision reduction + Diabetes mellitus + Neuropathies 3.0 1.5
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Renal insufficiency 2.9 1.2
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Cardiac insufficiency 2.9 1.2
Diabetes mellitus + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Renal insufficiency 2.6 1.1
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Renal insufficiency 2.5 1.5
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac arrhythmias + Renal insufficiency 2.4 1.3
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Cerebral ischemia/Chronic stroke 2.4 1.3
Diabetes mellitus + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Cerebral ischemia/Chronic stroke 2.4 1.2
Hypertension + Renal insufficiency + Cardiac insufficiency 2.4 1.1
Lipid metabolism disorders + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 2.3 3.5
Diabetes mellitus + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 2.3 2.3
Diabetes mellitus + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.3 1.9
Lipid metabolism disorders + Obesity + Liver diseases 2.3 1.7
Diabetes mellitus + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Renal insufficiency 2.3 1.4
Diabetes mellitus + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac insufficiency 2.3 1.2
Hypertension + Urinary incontinence + Cancers 2.3 1.1
Lipid metabolism disorders + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Renal insufficiency 2.2 2.1
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac insufficiency 2.2 1.8
Hypertension + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 2.1 1.8
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Renal insufficiency 2.1 1.7
Lipid metabolism disorders + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 2.1 1.2
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Cardiac insufficiency 2.1 1.2
Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.1 1.1
Hypertension + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Renal insufficiency 2.0 2.7
Lipid metabolism disorders + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.0 2.7
Hypertension + Obesity + Liver diseases 2.0 2.3
Hypertension + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac insufficiency 2.0 2.3
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Neuropathies 2.0 1.7
Lipid metabolism disorders + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Cerebral ischemia/Chronic stroke 2.0 1.6
Chronic low back pain + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 2.0 1.0
Anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders and pain O/E %
Chronic low back pain + Hemorrhoids + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.5 1.0
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Hemorrhoids 2.3 1.6
Chronic low back pain + Prostatic hyperplasia + Sexual dysfunction 2.3 1.2
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Lower limb varicosis 2.2 2.5
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Intestinal diverticulosis 2.2 1.4
Chronic low back pain + Depression + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.2 1.1
Chronic low back pain + Prostatic hyperplasia + Hemorrhoids 2.1 1.6
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Insomnia 2.1 1.3
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Severe hearing loss 2.1 1.1
Both multimorbidity patterns O/E %
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Asthma/COPD + Cardiac insufficiency 2.5 1.0
Chronic low back pain + Joint arthrosis + Neuropathies 2.2 1.8
Chronic low back pain + Obesity + Liver diseases 2.2 1.4
Chronic low back pain + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Neuropathies 2.1 1.1
Joint arthrosis + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.0 1.4
Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases + Asthma/COPD 2.0 1.1
Hyperuricemia/Gout + Prostatic hyperplasia + Renal insufficiency 2.0 1.1
  1. O/E: observed/expected ratio; PAOD: peripheral arterial occlusive disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease.