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Table 3 Factors contributing to out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditure and prescription drug expenditure in elderly

From: Living arrangements, chronic diseases, and prescription drug expenditures among Korean elderly: vulnerability to potential medication underuse

  OOP medical expenditure cost ratio (95% confidence interval) OOP prescription drug expenditure cost ratio (95% confidence interval)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Living arrangement
  Living with adult aged 20-64 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Living only with spouse 0.86 0.82 1.05 0.97 0.94 1.10
(0.72-1.04) (0.66-1.01) (0.84-1.32) (0.87-1.08) (0.82-1.07) (0.96-1.26)
  Living alone 0.76 0.65 0.85 0.96 0.80 0.98
(0.58-0.98)* (0.48-0.89)* (0.62-1.16) (0.83-1.13) (0.67-0.97)* (0.81-1.18)
Age
  65-74 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  75+ 1.05 1.08 1.05 1.10 1.16 1.11
(0.87-1.27) (0.87-1.35) (0.85-1.31) (0.98-1.24) (1.02-1.33)* (0.97-1.27)
Gender
  Women 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Men 1.06 1.26 1.28 0.99 1.41 1.42
(0.89-1.26) (1.03-1.55)* (1.03-1.60)* (0.89-1.10) (1.24-1.61)* (1.24-1.63)*
No. of major chronic diseases
  0   1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00
  1   1.63 1.67   2.11 2.17
  (1.27-2.09)* (1.32-2.12)*   (1.81-2.46)* (1.88-2.52)*
  2+   2.31 2.39   4.18 4.33
  (1.81-2.96)* (1.89-3.03)*   (3.58-4.87)* (3.73-5.03)*
Education
  Elementary school or less    1.00    1.00
  Middle school    0.82    1.06
(0.61-1.09) (0.88-1.26)
  High school or more    1.04    1.12
(0.80- 1.35) (0.95-1.31)
Employment
  Not employed    1.00    1.00
  Employed    0.76    0.68
(0.62-0.93)* (0.60-0.77)*
Household equivalent income
  High    1.00    1.00
  Middle high    0.77    1.00
(0.59-1.00) (0.85-1.18)
  Middle low    0.71    0.84
(0.53-0.95)* (0.70-1.00)
  Low    0.54    0.71
    (0.40-0.72)*    (0.59-0.85)*
  1. High (≥ US$13,166); Middle high (US$7,760 to <13,166); Middle low (US$4,690 to <7,760); Low (<US$4,690) *P-value < 0.05.