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Table 1 Subject characteristics and living arrangements

From: Living arrangements, chronic diseases, and prescription drug expenditures among Korean elderly: vulnerability to potential medication underuse

Characteristics Total (n, %) Living arrangement (n, %)
Living alone Living only with spouse Living with adult aged 20-64
All 2,342 (100.0) 340 (100.0) 1,131 (100.0) 871 (100.0)
Age
 65-74 1759 (75.1) 229 (67.3) 920 (81.3) 610 (70.0)
 75+ 583 (24.9) 111 (32.7) 211 (18.7) 261 (30.0)
Gender
 Women 1306 (55.8) 301 (88.5) 477 (42.2) 528 (60.6)
 Men 1036 (44.2) 39 (11.5) 654 (57.8) 343 (39.4)
Education
 Elementary school or less 1535 (65.5) 284 (83.5) 664 (58.7) 587 (67.4)
 Middle school 297 (12.7) 21 (6.2) 162 (14.3) 114 (13.1)
 High school or more 510 (21.8) 35 (10.3) 305 (27.0) 170 (19.5)
Employment
 Not employed 1400 (59.8) 213 (62.7) 579 (51.2) 608 (69.8)
 Employed 942 (40.2) 127 (37.3) 552 (48.8) 263 (30.2)
Household equivalent income
 High 599 (25.6) 22 (6.4) 181 (16.0) 396 (45.4)
 Middle high 595 (25.4) 52 (15.3) 276 (24.4) 267 (30.7)
 Middle low 567 (24.2) 109 (32.1) 323 (28.6) 135 (15.5)
 Low 581 (24.8) 157 (46.2) 351 (31.0) 73 (8.4)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 1374 (58.6) 275 (80.9) 579 (51.2) 520 (59.7)
 Ex-smoker 613 (26.2) 35 (10.3) 363 (32.1) 215 (24.7)
 Current-smoker 355 (15.2) 30 (8.8) 189 (16.7) 136 (15.6)
Exercise
 No 2114 (90.3) 322 (94.7) 989 (87.4) 803 (92.2)
 Yes 228 (9.7) 18 (5.3) 142 (12.6) 68 (7.8)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Normal (<23) 1209 (51.6) 164 (48.2) 586 (51.8) 459 (52.7)
 Overweight (23 to <25) 592 (25.3) 73 (21.5) 314 (27.8) 205 (23.5)
 Obese (≥25) 541 (23.1) 103 (30.3) 231 (20.4) 207 (23.8)
No of major chronic diseases
 None 673 (28.7) 44 (12.9) 351 (31.0) 278 (31.9)
 1 738 (31.5) 99 (29.1) 376 (33.2) 263 (30.2)
 2 or more 931 (39.8) 197 (58.0) 404 (35.8) 330 (37.9)
Major chronic diseases
 Hypertension 1,051 (44.9) 176 (51.8) 486 (43.0) 389 (44.7)
  Arthritis 550 (23.5) 130 (38.2) 222 (19.6) 198 (22.7)
 Diabetes 373 (15.9) 57 (16.8) 181 (16.0) 135 (15.5)
 Dorsopathies and ankylosing spondylitis 237 (10.1) 54 (15.9) 103 (9.1) 80 (9.2)
 Disorders of bone density and structure including osteoporosis 234 (10.0) 57 (16.8) 96 (8.5) 81 (9.3)
 Gastritis and duodenitis 192 (8.2) 31 (9.1) 103 (9.1) 58 (6.7)
 Cataract, disorders of lens 170 (7.3) 36 (10.6) 75 (6.6) 59 (6.8)
 Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism 154 (6.6) 36 (10.6) 69 (6.1) 49 (5.6)
 Soft tissue disorders including neuralgia 118 (5.0) 22 (6.5) 50 (4.4) 46 (5.3)
 Intervertebral disc disorder 113 (4.8) 29 (8.5) 57 (5.0) 27 (3.1)
  1. High (≥ US$13,166); Middle high (US$7,760 to <13,166); Middle low (US$4,690 to <7,760); Low (<US$4,690).