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Table 2 Themes of barriers to anal self-examination (ASE)

From: Exploring anal self-examination as a means of screening for anal cancer in HIV positive men who have sex with men: a qualitative study

Attitudinal barriers Concern about discomfort with any anal examinations
  Anxiety about finding an abnormality
  Preference for a health professional to do an anal examination
  Too many sensations or sexual connotations with ASE
Knowledge barriers Lack of awareness of anal cancer risk
  Ignorance of how anal cancer presents
Practical barriers Inadequate physical flexibility to conduct an ASE
  Importance of cleanliness before ASE