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Table 3 Associations with combination prevention program exposure for behavioral outcomes among MSM across five Central American countries

From: Effectiveness of a combination prevention strategy for HIV risk reduction with men who have sex with men in Central America: a mid-term evaluation

  Full sample (n = 3531)* Matched sample (n = 2922)**
Condom use at last sex with any partner    
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)*** OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)***
Any 1.49 (0.81, 2.74) 1.50 (0.81, 2.79) 1.44 (0.74, 2.82) 1.44 (0.73, 2.84)
Behavioral 1.56 (0.72, 3.35) 1.55 (0.72, 3.35) 1.57 (0.67, 3.66) 1.56 (0.66, 3.69)
Biomedical 1.64 (0.65, 4.13) 1.67 (0.65, 4.26) 1.73 (0.63, 4.71) 1.73 (0.62,4.81)
Complementary 1.24 (0.50, 3.05) 1.26 (0.50, 3.13) 1.11 (0.44, 2.84) 1.10 (0.42, 2.84)
Behavioral + Biomedical 2.32 (0.467, 11.46) 2.16 (0.43, 10.78) 2.48 (0.42, 14.64) 2.39 (0.40, 14.32)
Behavioral + Complementary 1.38 (0.37, 5.20) 1.33 (0.35, 5.05) 1.29 (0.33, 5.09) 1.21 (0.30, 4.88)
Combination 2.35 (0.24, 22.80) 2.26 (0.23–22.09) 2.50 (0.20, 30.82) 2.48 (0.20, 31.26)
Condom and lubricant use at last sex with any partner   
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)
Any 1.35 (0.90, 2.02) 1.32 (0.87, 1.99) 1.40 (0.90, 2.17) 1.31 (0.84, 2.05)
Behavioral 1.73 (1.06, 2.83) 1.66 (1.01, 2.74) 1.84 (1.08, 3.14) 1.70 (0.98, 2.95)
Biomedical 1.54 (0.88, 2.71) 1.53 (0.86, 2.71) 1.71 (0.94, 3.12) 1.57 (0.85, 2.90)
Complementary 0.86 (0.47, 1.58) 0.86 (0.47, 1.59) 0.86 (0.46, 1.61) 0.83 (0.44, 1.58)
Behavioral + Biomedical 3.14 (1.22 ,8.13) 2.88 (1.10, 7.51) 3.51 (1.26, 9.80) 3.05 (1.08, 8.64)
Behavioral + Complementary 1.50 (0.64, 3.54) 1.44 (0.61, 3.42) 1.56 (0.64, 3.80) 1.43 (0.58, 3.53)
Combination 3.54 (0.91, 13.75) 3.33 (0.85, 13.04) 4.12 (0.94, 18.15) 3.76 (0.84, 16.88)
Consistent condom use in the last 30 days with all partner types  
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)
Any 1.17 (0.66, 2.06) 1.21 (0.68, 2.16) 1.38 (0.75, 2.53) 1.37 (0.70, 2.50)
Behavioral 1.01 (0.52, 1.97) 1.05 (0.53–2.07) 1.13(0.55, 2.30) 1.17 (0.56, 2.44)
Biomedical 1.47 (0.63, 3.45) 1.45 (0.61, 3.46) 1.89 (0.75, 4.77) 1.82 (0.71, 4.65)
Complementary 0.82 (0.38, 1.80) 0.82 (0.37,1.81) 0.93 (0.41, 2.09) 0.90 (0.39, 2.04)
Behavioral + Biomedical 1.12 (0.34, 3.67) 1.09 (0.33, 3.60) 1.28 (0.37, 4.45) 1.23 (0.35, 4.37)
Behavioral + Complementary 0.71 (0.25, 2.02) 0.69 (0.24, 1.99) 0.84 (0.28, 2.48) 1.09 (0.30, 3.98)
Combination 0.72 (0.17, 3.10) 0.70 (0.16, 3.06) 0.90 (0.19, 4.22) 0.85(0.18, 4.17)
Consistent condom use in the last 30 days with regular partners  
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)
Any 1.72 (1.15, 2.57) 1.71 (1.13, 2.57) 1.69 (1.09, 2.62) 1.51 (0.88, 2.57)
Behavioral 1.83 (1.12, 3.00) 1.78 (1.08, 2.93) 1.88 (1.10, 3.21) 1.88 (1.09, 3.25)
Biomedical 1.18 (0.68, 2.05) 1.17 (0.67, 2.05) 1.19 (0.66, 2.14) 1.19 (0.65, 2.17)
Complementary 1.64 (0.90, 3.00) 1.63 (.089, 3.01) 1.50 (0.79, 2.82) 1.53 (0.80, 2.90)
Behavioral + Biomedical 1.66 (0.71,, 3.88) 1.56 (0.66, 3.67) 1.74 (0.71, 4.28) 1.63 (0.67, 4.19)
Behavioral + Complementary 1.81 (0.76, 4.30) 1.72 (0.72, 4.10) 1.69 (0.69, 4.16) 1.67 (0.67, 4.14)
Combination 1.41 (0.43, 4.54) 1.33 (0.41,4.32) 1.34 (0.39, 4.57) 1.31 (0.38, 4.56)
Consistent condom use in the last 30 days with commercial partners  
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)
Any 1.47 (0.91, 2.37) 1.58 (0.97, 2.59) 1.39 (0.83, 2.33) 1.51 (0.88, 2.57)
Behavioral 1.44 (0.82, 2.53) 1.58 (0.89,2.83) 1.36 (0.74, 2.50) 1.5 (0.79 ,2.78)
Biomedical 0.99 (0.51, 1.93) 1.03 (0.52, 2.03) 0.86 (0.428, 1.74) 0.9 (0.45, 1.90)
Complementary 1.87 (0.97, 3.62) 1.95 (1.00, 3.82) 1.69 (0.84, 3.38) 1.8 (0.87, 3.61)
Behavioral + Biomedical 0.88 (0.30, 2.59) 0.94 (0.32, 2.80) 0.78 (0.25, 2.44) 0.8 (0.26, 2.68)
Behavioral + Complementary 2.34 (0.96, 5.70) 2.47 (1.00, 6.09) 2.11 (0.84, 5.32) 2.2 (0.85, 5.69)
Combination 1.44 (0.38, 5.41) 1.52 (0.40, 5.82) 1.28 (0.312, 5.18) 1.4 (0.32, 5.66)
Had an HIV test and received results in the last 12 months   
  OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Adj OR (95% CI)
Any 3.98 (2.54, 6.23) 4.06 (2.57, 6.42) 3.04 (1.88, 4.91) 2.98 (1.82, 4.87)
Behavioral 2.49 (1.49, 4.17) 2.48 (1.47, 4.18) 1.86 (1.07, 3.22) 1.76 (1.01, 3.10)
Biomedical     
Complementary 2.54 (1.28, 5.08) 2.55 (1.27, 5.12) 1.97 (1.0, 4.05) 1.95 (0.94, 4.03)
Behavioral + Biomedical     
Behavioral + Complementary 3.52 (1.23, 10.13) 3.45 (1.19, 9.97) 2.77 (0.93, 8.30) 2.63 (0.87, 7.93)
Combination 39.58 (0.80, 1978.03) 37.78 (0.75, 1894.03) 43.22 (0.37, 5070.70) 40.03 (0.34, 4716.04)
  1. Estimates in bold are statistically significant at p < 0.05.
  2. *Results weighted for network size, recruitment chain, and city population size.
  3. **Results weighted for network size, recruitment chain, city population size, and matching stratum.
  4. ***Models adjusted for age and socio-economic status.