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Table 2 Characteristics of 942 nondaily smokers, nonsmokers and daily smokers at age 21 years (T2)

From: Nondaily smoking: a population-based, longitudinal study of stability and predictors

  Nondaily smokers (n = 125) Nonsmokers (n = 553) Daily smokers NND (n = 156) Daily smokers ND (n = 108) p-value for test of differences between groups†
Family factors at T1      
Gender, % women 52.0 55.5 68.6 49.1 0.005
Parental educational level, M (SD) 2.6 (0.9) 2.5 (0.8) 2.4 (0.8) 2.2 (0.7)** 0.007
Parental alcohol intoxication, M (SD) 2.1 (2.1) 2.0 (2.1) 2.6 (2.2) 3.2 (2.3)*** <0.001
Parental control, M (SD) 23.4 (5.3) 24.2 (4.8) 21.8 (6.1) 21.2 (5.8)* <0.001
One or both parents nondaily or daily smokers, % 62.4 60.8 75.6 76.6 <0.001
Peers smoking status at T2      
One or two best friends smokers, % 57.6 42.3 87.2 96.3 <0.001
Individual characteristics      
Educational level at T2, M (SD) 3.9 (0.5) 3.9 (0.5) 3.6 (0.6)** 3.6 (0.6)*** <0.001
High school dropout at T2, % 18.6 16.0 32.2 40.4 <0.001
School grades at T1, M (SD) 3.5 (0.5) 3.5 (0.5) 3.2 (0.5)** 3.1 (0.6)*** <0.001
Unorganized leisure time T1, M (SD) 5.0 (4.0) 4.1 (3.7) 7.4 (5.4)*** 8.6 (5.8)*** <0.001
T1 smoking status, %      
  Nonsmokers 69.6 91.5 50.6 48.1 <0.001
  Nondaily smokers 24.8 5.4 23.7 14.8  
  Daily smokers 5.6 3.1 25.6 37.0  
  1. †Results show ANOVA for continuous variables, and chi-square analyses for categorical variables. Asterisks denote significant difference from nondaily smokers: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. NND not nicotine dependent, ND nicotine dependent.