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Table 4 Multivariate associations (using stepwise backward and forward regression p< .05) between participant characteristics and the onset of drug use other than cannabis

From: Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

Variable categories and variables Separate model for each variable category Overall modela,b
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Demographics     
Religion and religiosity c     
Atheist (Ref.)     
 Agnostic 0.80 (0.53-1.20) .28   
 Unsure what to think about god 0.69 (0.43-1.11) .13   
 Belief in god but not practicing 0.87 (0.62-1.21) .41   
 Belief in god and practicing 0.28 (0.14-0.55) <.01   
Health d     
Depression (MDI, scale 0–50) 1.03 (1.01-1.04) <.01 1.02 (1.00-1.04) .02
No attention deficit syndrome (ASRS) (Ref.)     
 Attention deficit syndrome 1.84 (1.04-3.27) .04   
No anti-social personality disorder (Ref.)     
 Anti-social personality disorder 2.50 (1.81-3.46) <.01 1.51 (1.06-2.13) .02
Social context e     
Lower parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 (Ref.)     
 Higher parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 0.58 (0.44-0.79) <.01 0.73 (0.54-1.00) .05
No psychiatric problem of peer/s at age of 15 (Ref.)     
 Psychiatric problem of peer/s at age of 15 1.82 (1.37-2.42) <.01 1.53 (1.15-2.05) <.01
Peer pressure (PPI total score, range -3 - +3) 1.79 (1.26-2.54) <.01   
Substance use f     
No cigarette use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)     
 Very low nicotine dependence (FTND) 1.19 (0.84-1.69) .32   
 Low, moderate or high nicotine dependence (FTND) 1.58 (1.02-2.43) .04   
No cannabis use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)ab     
 Low cannabis dependence (CUDIT) 3.92 (2.90-5.31) <.01 3.01 (2.20-4.10) <.01
 Moderate or high cannabis dependence (CUDIT) 7.08 (4.54-11.03) <.01 4.13 (2.59-6.57) <.01
Personality g     
Sensation seeking (BSSS total score, range 1–5) 1.90 (1.60-2.26) <.01 1.49 (1.23-1.79) <.01
Anxiety (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0–10) 1.11 (1.04-1.18) <.01   
Military training school     
  1. Notes: aThe overall model resulted from backward and forward selection of the variables included in the separate models for each variable category. b R 2 = .11; c R 2 = .01; d R 2 = .03; e R 2 = .03; f R 2 = .08; g R 2 = .04. MDI = Major Depressive Inventory; FTND = Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; CUDIT = Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test; BSSS = Brief Sensation Seeking Scale; ZKPQ = Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire; PPI = Peer Pressure Inventory.