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Table 2 Characteristics of individuals with and without the onset of drug use other than cannabis and the univariate associations with the onset of drug use other than cannabis

From: Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

Variable categories and variables No onset of drug use Onset of drug use OR (95% CI) p
  n = 4,032 n = 222   
Demographics     
Age in yearsa, M (SD) 19.4 (1.2) 19.4 (1.3) 0.97 (0.87-1.09) .64
Lower educational level (Ref.)b 2,911 (73.5%) 158 (72.1%)   
 Higher educational level 1,048 (26.5%) 61 (27.9%) 1.07 (0.79-1.45) .65
Living alone (Ref.)c 112 (2.8%) 10 (4.5%)   
 Living with parent or parents 3,660 (91.4%) 193 (87.3%) 0.59 (0.30-1.15) .12
 Living with partner 92 (2.3%) 9 (4.1%) 1.10 (0.43-2.81) .85
 Living with friends or in institution 140 (3.5%) 9 (4.1%) 0.72 (0.28-1.83) .49
Means of subsistence: own person (Ref.)d 879 (22.0%) 42 (19.0%)   
 Own person and others persons or institutions 1,664 (41.6%) 101 (45.7%) 1.27 (0.88-1.84) .20
 Other persons or institutions 1,457 (36.4%) 78 (35.3%) 1.12 (0.76-1.65) .56
Not living in a partnership (Ref.)e 3,827 (95.7%) 210 (95.0%)   
 Living in a partnership 173 (4.3%) 11 (5.0%) 1.16 (0.62-2.17) .64
Having no siblings (Ref.)f 253 (6.5%) 17 (7.9%)   
 One or two siblings 2,965 (76.0%) 163 (75.8%) 0.82 (0.49-1.37) .45
 Three or more siblings 685 (17.6%) 35 (16.3%) 0.76 (0.42-1.38) .37
Religion and religiosity     
Christian religion (Ref.)g 2,967 (74.5%) 162 (75.0%)   
 Muslim religion 173 (4.3%) 3 (1.4%) 0.32 (0.10-1.01) .05
 Other religion 91 (2.3%) 1 (0.5%) 0.20 (0.03-1.45) .11
 No religion 751 (18.9%) 50 (23.1%) 1.22 (0.88-1.69) .24
Atheist (Ref.)h 1,050 (26.4%) 72 (33.3%)   
 Agnostic 676 (17.0%) 37 (17.1%) 0.80 (0.53-1.20) .28
 Unsure what to think about god 506 (12.7%) 24 (11.1%) 0.69 (0.43-1.11) .13
 Belief in god but not practicing 1,228 (30.8%) 73 (33.8%) 0.87 (0.62-1.21) .41
 Belief in god and practicing 523 (13.1%) 10 (4.6%) 0.28 (0.14-0.55) <.01
Health     
Physical health (SF-12, scale 0-100)i, M (SD) 55.0 (5.1) 55.0 (5.1) 0.98 (0.96-1.01) .20
Mental health (SF-12, scale 0-100)j, M (SD) 50.1 (8.3) 48.4 (8.6) 0.98 (0.96-0.99) <.01
Depression (MDI, scale 0-50)k, M (SD) 6.5 (6.7) 8.2 (7.0) 1.03 (1.02-1.05) <.01
Low physical activity (IPAQ) (Ref.)l 377 (10.1%) 22 (11.1%)   
 Moderate physical activity 956 (25.6%) 54 (27.1%) 0.97 (0.58-1.61) .90
 High physical activity 2,402 (64.3%) 123 (61.8%) 0.88 (0.55-1.40) .58
No attention deficit syndrome (ASRS) (Ref.)m 3,897 (96.9%) 207 (93.2%)   
 Attention deficit syndrome 126 (3.1%) 15 (6.8%) 2.24 (1.29-3.90) <.01
No anti-social personality disorder (Ref.)n 3,530 (88.2%) 160 (74.1%)   
 Anti-social personality disorder 471 (11.8%) 56 (25.9%) 2.62 (1.91-3.61) <.01
Social context     
Grew up with both parents (Ref.)o 3,228 (80.6%) 169 (77.9%)   
 …with parent and step-parent 204 (5.1%) 14 (6.5%) 1.31 (0.75-2.30) .35
 …with one parent 533 (13.3%) 30 (13.8%) 1.08 (0.72-1.60) .72
 …with adoptive or foster parents or in institution 39 (1.0%) 4 (1.8%) 1.96 (0.69-5.55) .21
No parental divorce before the age of 18 (Ref.)p 3,101 (77.6%) 159 (73.6%)   
 Parental divorce before the age of 18 895 (22.4%) 57 (26.4%) 1.24 (0.91-1.70) .17
Lower educational level of the father (Ref.)q 2,095 (52.6%) 106 (48.8%)   
 Higher educational level of the father 1,887 (47.4%) 111 (51.2%) 1.16 (0.89-1.53) .28
Lower educational level of the mother (Ref.)r 2,365 (59.5%) 116 (53.7%)   
 Higher educational level of the mother 1,610 (40.5%) 100 (46.3%) 1.27 (0.96-1.67) .09
Financial situation of the family (Scale 1-7)s, M (SD) 3.6 (1.0) 3.5 (1.0) 0.95 (0.83-1.09) .44
Good relationship with parents before the age of 18 (Ref.)t 3,264 (81.2%) 165 (74.3%)   
 Bad relationship to parents before age of 18 758 (18.8%) 57 (25.7%) 1.49 (1.09-2.03) .01
Lower parental rule setting at the age of 15 (Ref.)u 1,572 (39.1%) 103 (46.4%)   
 Higher parental rule setting at the age of 15 2,448 (60.9%) 119 (53.6%) 0.74 (0.57-0.97) .03
Lower parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 (Ref.)v 899 (22.4%) 78 (35.1%)   
 Higher parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 3,120 (77.6%) 144 (64.9%) 0.53 (0.40-0.71) <.01
No psychiatric problem of father at age of 15 (Ref.)w 3,747 (93.5%) 199 (90.5%)   
 Psychiatric problem of father at age of 15 261 (6.5%) 21 (9.5%) 1.52 (0.95-2.42) .08
No psychiatric problem of mother at age of 15(Ref.)x 3,857 (96.2%) 207 (94.1%)   
 Psychiatric problem of mother at age of 15 152 (3.8%) 13 (5.9%) 1.59 (0.89-2.86) .12
No psychiatric problem of peer/s at age of 15 (Ref.)y 2,483 (62.2%) 96 (44.9%)   
 Psychiatric problem of peer/s at age of 15 1,511 (37.8%) 118 (55.1%) 2.02 (1.53-2.66) <.01
Peer pressure (PPI total score, range -3 - +3)z,     
M (SD) 0.28 (0.39) 0.39 (0.44) 2.03 (1.44-2.87) <.01
Substance use     
Never used alcohol (Ref.)aa 438 (11.4%) 12 (5.5%)   
 Have used alcohol 3,416 (88.6%) 207 (94.5%) 2.21 (1.23-3.99) .01
No alcohol use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)ab 173 (4.5%) 4 (1.8%)   
 Alcohol use - not at risk (AUDIT-C) 1,095 (28.6%) 29 (13.2%) 1.15 (0.40-3.30) .80
 Alcohol use - at risk (AUDIT-C) 2,563 (66.9%) 186 (84.9%) 3.14 (1.15-8.55) .03
Never used any tobacco product (Ref.) 1,944 (48.2%) 69 (31.1%)   
 Have used a tobacco product 2,089 (51.8%) 153 (68.9%) 2.06 (1.54-2.76) <.01
No cigarette use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)ac 2,495 (63.9%) 91 (42.7%)   
 Very low nicotine dependence (FTND) 1,048 (26.8%) 83 (39.0%) 2.17 (1.60-2.95) <.01
Low, moderate or high nicotine dependence (FTND) 362 (9.3%) 39 (18.3%) 2.95 (2.00-4.37) <.01
Never used cannabis (Ref.)ad 2,513 (62.4%) 76 (34.4%)   
 Have used cannabis 1,515 (37.6%) 145 (65.6%) 3.17 (2.38-4.21) <.01
No cannabis use in previous 12 months (Ref.)ae 3,204 (79.5%) 106 (47.7%)   
 No problem use (CUDIT) 688 (17.1%) 86 (38.7%) 3.78 (2.81-5.08) <.01
 Problem use (CUDIT) 140 (3.5%) 30 (13.5%) 6.48 (4.18-10.05) <.01
Personality     
Sensation seeking (BSSS total score, range 1-5)af,     
M (SD) 2.9 (0.8) 3.4 (0.9) 1.88 (1.59-2.24) <.01
Aggression (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)ag, M (SD) 4.0 (2.2) 4.5 (2.2) 1.10 (1.04-1.17) <.01
Sociability (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)ah, M (SD) 5.8 (2.2) 6.0 (2.1) 1.04 (0.98-1.11) .23
Anxiety (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)ai, M (SD) 1.9 (1.9) 2.2 (2.0) 1.09 (1.02-1.16) .01
Military training school     
 Not started yet (Ref.)aj 611 (24.0%) 36 (27.7%)   
 Started 360 (14.1%) 12 (9.2%) 0.57 (0.29-1.10) .09
 Finished 1,405 (55.1%) 73 (56.2%) 0.88 (0.59-1.33) .55
 Discontinued 175 (6.9%) 9 (6.9%) 0.87 (0.41-1.85) .72
  1. Values are numbers (%) unless stated otherwise.
  2. Notes: Separate binary logistic regression model for each variable. Missing values: an = 1, bn = 77, cn = 30, dn = 34, en = 34, fn = 137, gn = 57, hn = 56, in = 35, jn = 35, kn = 30, ln = 321, mn = 34, nn = 43, on = 56, pn = 64, qn = 15, rn = 11, sn = 13, tn = 14, un = 27, vn = 26, wn = 47, xn = 182, yn = 205, zn = 137, aan = 6, abn = 1, acn = 10, adn = 6, aen = 9, afn = 9, agn = 9, ahn = 73, ain = 38, ajn = 1,666; SF-12 = 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey; MDI = Major Depressive Inventory; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire; AUDIT-C = Short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; FTND = Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; CUDIT = Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test; ASRS = Item Screener of the Attention Deficit Syndrome Self Report Scale; BSSS = Brief Sensation Seeking Scale; ZKPQ = Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire; PPI = Peer Pressure Inventory.