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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with and without the onset of cannabis use and the univariate associations with the onset of cannabis use

From: Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

Variable categories and variables No onset of cannabis use Onset of cannabis use OR (95% CI) p
  n = 2,562 n = 212   
Demographics     
Age in yearsa, M (SD) 19.4 (1.2) 19.3 (1.4) 0.92 (0.82-1.05) .21
Lower educational level (Ref.)b 1,892 (75.2%) 149 (72.7%)   
 Higher educational level 623 (24.8%) 56 (27.3%) 1.14 (0.83-1.57) .42
Living alone (Ref.)c 64 (2.5%) 6 (2.9%)   
 Living with parent or parents 2,345 (92.2%) 191 (91.4%) 0.87 (0.37-2.03) .75
 Living with partner 62 (2.4%) 5 (2.4%) 0.86 (0.25-2.96) .81
 Living with friends or in institution 72 (2.8%) 7 (3.3%) 1.03 (0.33-3.25) .95
Means of subsistence: own person (Ref.)d 618 (24.3%) 30 (14.4%)   
 Own person and others persons or institutions 1,030 (40.6%) 83 (39.7%) 1.66 (1.08-2.55) .02
 Other persons or institutions 891 (35.1%) 96 (45.9%) 2.22 (1.46-3.39) <.01
Not living in a partnership (Ref.)e 2,437 (96.0%) 198 (94.7%)   
 Living in a partnership 102 (4.0%) 11 (5.3%) 1.33 (0.70-2.51) .39
Having no siblings (Ref.)f 164 (6.6%) 5 (2.5%)   
 One or two siblings 1,873 (75.6%) 163 (81.5%) 2.85 (1.16-7.05) .02
 Three or more siblings 440 (17.8%) 32 (16.0%) 2.38 (0.91-6.23) .08
Religion and religiosity     
Christian religion (Ref.)g 1,929 (76.5%) 161 (78.2%)   
 Muslim religion 123 (4.9%) 6 (2.9%) 0.58 (0.25-1.35) .21
 Other religion 54 (2.1%) 7 (3.4%) 1.55 (0.70-3.47) .28
 No religion 415 (16.5%) 32 (15.5%) 0.92 (0.62-1.37) .69
Atheist (Ref.)h 611 (24.2%) 61 (29.6%)   
 Agnostic 387 (15.3%) 29 (14.1%) 0.75 (0.47-1.19) .22
 Unsure what to think about god 304 (12.0%) 31 (15.0%) 1.02 (0.65-1.61) .93
 Belief in god but not practicing 808 (32.0%) 67 (32.5%) 0.83 (0.58-1.19) .32
 Belief in god and practicing 413 (16.4%) 18 (8.7%) 0.44 (0.25-0.75) <.01
Health     
Physical health (SF-12, scale 0-100)i, M (SD) 55.0 (5.1) 55.1 (5.3) 1.00 (0.98-1.03) .77
Mental health (SF-12, scale 0-100)j, M (SD) 50.5 (8.3) 49.3 (7.7) 0.98 (0.97-1.00) .04
Depression (MDI, scale 0-50)k, M (SD) 6.1 (6.8) 7.7 (7.5) 1.03 (1.01-1.05) <.01
Low physical activity (IPAQ) (Ref.)l 249 (10.6%) 16 (7.9%)   
 Moderate physical activity 583 (24.9%) 56 (27.7%) 1.50 (0.84-2.66) .17
 High physical activity 1,510 (64.5%) 130 (64.4%) 1.34 (0.78-2.29) .29
No attention deficit syndrome (ASRS) (Ref.)m 2,494 (97.5%) 201 (95.3%)   
 Attention deficit syndrome 65 (2.5%) 10 (4.7%) 1.91 (0.97-3.77) .06
No anti-social personality disorder (Ref.)n 2,317 (91.4%) 174 (84.1%)   
 Anti-social personality disorder 217 (8.6%) 33 (15.9%) 2.03 (1.36-3.01) <.01
Social context     
Grew up with both parents (Ref.)o 2,105 (83.1%) 155 (74.2%)   
 …with parent and step-parent 101 (4.0%) 20 (9.6%) 2.69 (1.62-4.46) <.01
 …with one parent 297 (11.7%) 33 (15.8%) 1.51 (1.02-2.24) .04
 …with adoptive or foster parents or in institution 30 (1.2%) 1 (0.5%) 0.45 (0.06-3.34) .44
No parental divorce before the age of 18 (Ref.)p 2,053 (81.2%) 142 (68.9%)   
 Parental divorce before the age of 18 476 (18.8%) 64 (31.1%) 1.94 (1.42-2.65) <.01
Lower educational level of the father (Ref.)q 1,419 (56.3%) 99 (46.7%)   
 Higher educational level of the father 1,103 (43.1%) 108 (50.9%) 1.40 (1.06-1.86) .02
Lower educational level of the mother (Ref.)r 1,559 (62.0%) 110 (52.9%)   
 Higher educational level of the mother 956 (38.0%) 98 (47.1%) 1.45 (1.09-1.93) .01
Financial situation of the family (Scale 1-7)s, M (SD) 3.6 (1.0) 3.5 (1.0) 0.92 (0.79-1.06) .22
Good relationship with parents before the age of 18 (Ref.)t 2,115 (82.8%) 166 (78.3%)   
 Bad relationship with parents before the age of 18 438 (17.2%) 46 (21.7%) 1.34 (0.95-1.88) .10
Lower parental rule setting at the age of 15 (Ref.)u 972 (38.1%) 94 (44.3%)   
 Higher parental rule setting at the age of 15 1,579 (61.9%) 118 (55.7%) 0.77 (0.58-1.03) .08
Lower parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 (Ref.)v 491 (19.2%) 55 (25.9%)   
 Higher parental knowledge of peers and the     
 whereabouts at the age of 15 2,060 (80.4%) 157 (74.1%) 0.68 (0.49-0.94) .02
No psychiatric problem of father at age of 15 (Ref.)w 2,401 (94.2%) 198 (93.8%)   
 Psychiatric problem of father at age of 15 147 (5.8%) 13 (6.2%) 1.07 (0.60-1.93) .81
No psychiatric problem of mother at age of 15 (Ref.)x 2,471 (97.1%) 197 (93.8%)   
 Psychiatric problem of mother at age of 15 75 (2.9%) 13 (6.2%) 2.17 (1.19-3.99) .01
No psychiatric problem of peer/s at age of 15 (Ref.)y 1,672 (66.1%) 124 (59.6%)   
 Psychiatric problem in the peer/s at the age of 15 857 (33.9%) 84 (40.4%) 1.32 (0.99-1.76) .06
Peer pressure (PPI total score, range -3 - +3)z,     
M (SD) 0.2 (0.4) 0.3 (0.5) 2.13 (1.47-3.08) <.01
Substance use     
Never used alcohol (Ref.)aa 368 (15.4%) 21 (10.0%)   
 Have used alcohol 2,021 (84.6%) 189 (90.0%) 1.64 (1.03-2.61) .04
No alcohol use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)ab 150 (6.3%) 7 (3.4%)   
 Alcohol use - not at risk (AUDIT-C) 847 (35.7%) 58 (28.0%) 1.47 (0.66-3.28) .35
 Alcohol use - at risk (AUDIT-C) 1,376 (58.0%) 142 (68.6%) 2.21 (1.02-4.81) .04
Never used any tobacco product (Ref.) 1,692 (66.0%) 102 (48.1%)   
 Have used a tobacco product 870 (34.0%) 110 (51.9%) 2.10 (1.58-2.78) <.01
No cigarette use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)ac 2,037 (81.6%) 132 (65.0%)   
 Very low nicotine dependence (FTND) 351 (14.1%) 63 (31.0%) 2.77 (2.01-3.82) <.01
 Low, moderate or high nicotine dependence (FTND) 109 (4.4%) 8 (3.9%) 1.13 (0.54-2.37) .74
Never used drugs other than cannabis (Ref.)ad 2,429 (95.7%) 194 (92.8%)   
 Used drugs other than cannabis 108 (4.3%) 15 (7.2%) 1.74 (0.99-3.04) .05
Personality     
Sensation seeking (BSSS total score, range 1-5)ae,     
M (SD) 2.8 (0.8) 3.1 (0.8) 1.70 (1.43-2.02) <.01
Aggression (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)af, M (SD) 3.8 (2.2) 4.0 (2.2) 1.04 (0.98-1.11) .24
Sociability (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)ag, M (SD) 5.6 (2.3) 6.0 (2.1) 1.08 (1.01-1.15) .02
Anxiety (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0-10)ah, M (SD) 1.9 (1.9) 2.1 (2.2) 1.08 (1.01-1.15) .03
Military training school     
 Not started yet (Ref.)ai 388 (23.6%) 34 (27.9%)   
 Started 256 (15.5%) 14 (11.5%) 0.62 (0.33-1.19) .15
 Finished 897 (54.5%) 61 (50.0%) 0.78 (0.50-1.20) .25
 Discontinued 106 (6.4%) 13 (10.7%) 1.40 (0.71-2.75) .33
  1. Values are numbers (%) unless stated otherwise.
  2. Notes: Separate binary logistic regression model for each variable. Missing values: an = 1, bn = 54, cn = 22, dn = 26, en = 26, fn = 97, gn = 47, hn = 45, in = 21, jn = 21, kn = 28, ln = 230, mn = 4, nn = 33, on = 32, pn = 39, qn = 45, rn = 51, sn = 14, tn = 9, un = 11, vn = 11, wn = 15, xn = 18, yn = 37, zn = 62, aan = 175, abn = 194, acn = 74, adn = 28, aen = 3, afn = 5, agn = 5, ahn = 5, ain = 1,005; SF-12 = 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey; MDI = Major Depressive Inventory; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire; AUDIT-C = Short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; FTND = Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; ASRS = Item Screener of the Attention Deficit Syndrome Self Report Scale; BSSS = Brief Sensation Seeking Scale; ZKPQ = Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire; PPI = Peer Pressure Inventory.