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Table 2 Cox regression models of the association between quintiles of physical component summary score (PCS) of the SF-12 and adverse outcomes

From: Association between physical and mental health-related quality of life and adverse outcomes; a retrospective cohort study of 5,272 Scottish adults

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
All-cause death      
PCS quintile      
  1 (worst) 4.23 (2.70, 6.63) <0.001 2.64 (1.66, 4.20) <0.001 2.81 (1.76, 4.49) <0.001
  2 1.97 (1.22, 3.19) 0.005 1.44 (0.88, 2.34) 0.146 1.55 (0.95, 2.54) 0.078
  3 1.45 (0.86, 2.42) 0.160 1.09 (0.65, 1.84) 0.747 1.15 (0.68, 1.94) 0.599
  4 1.06 (0.61, 1.84) 0.826 0.90 (0.52, 1.57) 0.718 0.95 (0.55, 1.66) 0.869
  5 (best) 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Cancer registration      
PCS quintile      
  1 (worst) 1.87 (1.29, 2.71) 0.001 1.60 (1.08, 2.37) 0.018 1.63 (1.10, 2.42) 0.015
  2 1.58 (1.07, 2.31) 0.020 1.45 (0.98, 2.14) 0.067 1.47 (0.99, 2.19) 0.056
  3 1.39 (0.93, 2.07) 0.110 1.29 (0.86, 1.93) 0.223 1.30 (0.86, 1.95) 0.212
  4 1.50 (1.01, 2.23) 0.043 1.46 (0.98, 2.18) 0.062 1.45 (0.98, 2.17) 0.066
  5 (best) 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Coronary heart disease hospitalisation/death    
PCS quintile      
  1 (worst) 2.57 (1.35, 4.93) 0.004 1.99 (1.01, 3.93) 0.047 1.99 (1.00, 3.96) 0.049
  2 2.23 (1.15, 4.30) 0.017 1.82 (0.93, 3.59) 0.082 1.81 (0.92, 3.58) 0.087
  3 1.61 (0.79, 3.25) 0.187 1.36 (0.67, 2.78) 0.398 1.36 (0.66, 2.78) 0.402
  4 1.36 (0.66, 2.80) 0.405 1.19 (0.57, 2.47) 0.646 1.19 (0.57, 2.48) 0.640
  5 (best) 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
  1. Higher quintile indicate better physical health status; PCS, physical component summary quintile (score): 1 (<42), 2 (42 to 50.9), 3 (51 to 54.9), 4 (55 to 56), 5 (>56); HR, hazard ratio; CI, Confidence interval; Model 1 adjusted for age; Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, SIMD, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes; Model 3 adjusted for same covariates as Model 2 plus body mass index.