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Table 1 The "4Ps" marketing mix applied to public health nutrition policies

From: Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework

Price Taxes; subsidies; or other economic incentives
Product Reformulation; elimination or new products
Place Schools, workplaces or community settings
Promotion Restricting marketing to children and adults (advertising controls); nutritional food labelling; nutritional information on menus; public information campaigns; and health education
  1. ("Multi-component interventions" might involve a combination of several approaches).