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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression of risk and protective factors for substance use among Woreta general higher education preparatory and secondary school 9th- 12th-grade students (n = 651), Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia, May 2012

From: High prevalence of substance use and associated factors among high school adolescents in Woreta Town, Northwest Ethiopia: multi-domain factor analysis

Risk or Protective factors Substance Use OR (95%CI)
Yes No Crude Adjusted
n(%) n (%)
Socio – Demographic characteristics     
Age (years) 14-16 80(25.6) 112(33) 0.70(0.50-0.98) 0.82(0.52-1.30)
  17-19 232(74.4) 227(67) 1 1
Sex Female 106(34) 187(55.2) 1 1
  Male 206(66) 152(44.8) 2.39(1.74-3.28) 1.52 (1.03-2.25)*
Mother’s Ednl. Level Illiterate 116(37.2) 125(36.9) 1 1
  1-6 grade 132(42.3) 102(30.1) 1.40(0.97-2.00) 1.36(0.88-2.12)
  7-12 grade 41(13.1) 46(13.6) 0.96(0.59-1.57) 0.80(0.44-1.47)
  Vocl. Certificate 1(0.3) 18(5.3) 0.06(0.01-0.46) 0.51(0.005-0.55)*
  Diploma 12(3.8) 32(9.4) 0.40(0.20-0.82) 0.43(0.19-0.97)*
  Degree 10(3.2) 16(4.3) 0.67(0.29-1.54) 1.05(0.38-2.85)
Father’s Ednl. level Illiterate 87(27.9) 90(26.5) 1 1
  1-6 grade 113(36.2) 106(31.3) 1.10(0.74-1.63) 0.86(0.50-1.46)
  7-12 grade 64(20.2) 54(15.9) 1.22(0.77-1.96) 1.21(0.62-2.37)
  Vocl. Certificate 10(3.2) 13(3.8) 0.80(0.33-1.91) 1.05(0.29-3.81)
  Diploma 21(6.7) 31(9.1) 0.70(0.37-1.31) 1.30(0.47-3.58)
  Degree 17(5.4) 45(13.3) 0.39(0.20-0.73) 0.47(0.15-1.55)
Community Domain factors     
Low neighborhood attachment Yes 202(64.7) 179(52.8) 1.64(1.20-2.25) 0.94(0.62-1.43)
  No 110(35.5) 160(47.2) 1 1
Community norms favorable to Substance Use Yes 133(65.7) 107(39.2) 2.97(2.16-4.09) 1.95(1.31-2.90)**
  No 107(34.3) 206(60.8) 1 1
Perceived availability of Substances Yes 166(53.2) 158(46.6) 1.30(0.96-1.77) 1.02(0.68-1.53)
  No 146(44.6) 181(55.4) 1 1
Community rewards for prosocial involvement Yes 213(68.3) 285(84.1) 0.41(0.28-0.59) 0.73(0.45 1.19)
  No 99(31.5) 54(15.9) 1 1
Family domain factors      
Poor family management Yes 230(73.7) 207(61.1) 1.79(1.28-2.50) 1.40(0.91-2.12)
  No 82(26.3) 132(38.9) 1 1
Parental attitude favorable to substance use Yes 188(60.3) 118(34.8) 2.84(2.07-3.90) 1.40(0.91-2.12)
  No 124(39.7) 221(65.2) 1 1
Family history of alcohol and substance use Yes 129(41.3) 44(13.0) 4.73(3.20-6.97) 2.24(1.39-3.59)**
  No 183(58.7) 295(87) 1 1
Sibling’s use of substances Yes 179(57.4) 69(20.4) 5.27(3.72-7.45) 2.72(1.79-4.14)***
  No 133(42.6) 270(79.6) 1 1
Family attachment Yes 152(48.7) 230(67.8) 0.45(0.33-0.62) 0.94(0.59-1.50)
  No 160(51.3) 109(32.2) 1 1
Family opportunities for Prosocial involvment. Yes 155(49.7) 229(67.6) 0.47(0.35-0.65) 0.83(0.54-1.28)
  No 157(50.3) 110(32.4) 1 1
Family rewards for prosocial involvement Yes 131(42) 212(62.5) 0.43(0.32-0.59) 1.26(0.82-1.93)
  No 181(58%) 127(37.5) 1 1
School domain factors      
Poor academic performance Yes 220(70.5) 160(47.2) 2.68(1.94-3.70) 1.67(1.12-2.47)*
  No 92(29.5) 179(52.8) 1 1
Low school commitment Yes 203(65.1) 174(51.3) 1.77(1.29-2.42) 0.92(0.59-1.42)
  No 109(34.9) 165(48.7) 1 1
School opportunities for prosocial involvement Yes 188(60.3) 249(73.5) 055(0.39-0.76) 1.40(0.88-2.20)
  No 124(39.7) 90(26.5) 1 1
School rewards for prosocial involvement Yes 170(54.5) 232(68.4) 0.55(0.40-0.76) 0.89(0.56-1.41)
  No 142(45.5) 107(31.6) 1 1
Peer and individual domain factors      
Low perceived risk of Substance Use Yes 230(73.3) 159(46.9) 3.18(2.28-4.42) 1.73(1.15-2.60)*
  No 82(31.3) 180(68.7) 1 1
Friends use of substances Yes 182(58.3) 85(25.1) 4.18(2.99-5.84) 2.14(1.44-3.18)***
  No 130(41.7) 254(74.9) 1 1
Peer rewards for antisocial behaviors Yes 183(58.7) 131(38.6) 2.25(1.65-3.08) 1.18(0.79-1.76)
  No 129(41.3) 208(61.4) 1 1
Religiosity Yes 92(29.5) 199(58.7) 0.29(0.21-0.41) 0.46(0.31-0.68)***
  No 220(70.5) 140(41.3) 1 1
Social skills Yes 126(40.4) 231(68.1) 0.32(0.23-0.44) 0.61(0.40-0.91)*
  No 186(59.6) 108(31.9) 1 1
Belief in the moral order Yes 212(67.9) 284(88.3) 0.41(0.28-0.60) 0.90(0.54-1.48)
  No 100(32.1) 55(16.2) 1 1
Interaction with prosocial peers Yes 137(43.9) 207(61.1) 0.50(0.37-0.68) 0.88(0.59-1.32)
  No 175(56.1) 132(38.9) 1 1
  1. Abbreviations: OR, Odds Ratio; CI, Confidence Interval.
  2. Vocl. = Vocational.
  3. Ednl. Educational.
  4. NB.*Remained significant at P-Value <0.05.
  5. **Remained significant at P-Value ≤0.001.
  6. ***Remained significant at P-Value <0.0001.