Skip to main content

Table 3 Reported occasions, reasons and social norms for HWWS in intervention and control villages

From: Implementing effective hygiene promotion: lessons from the process evaluation of an intervention to promote handwashing with soap in rural India

    Intervention villages
    Education Caste/Religion
  Intervention villages N = 174 Control villages N = 171 None (80) Primary/secondary incomplete (77) Secondary or higher (16) Higher caste (119) Scheduled caste or tribe (43) Muslims (11)
Perceived importance of HWWS
After defecation 95 12 94 96 100 94 98 100
Before eating 95 29 93 97 94 96 91 100
Before cooking 89 7 84 94 94 89 86 100
Reasons for HWWS         
To be healthy/prevent disease ~100 48 99 100 100 100 98 100
To be successful 30 0 21 35 44 33 26 9
To have good manners 84 21 78 91 81 87 77 82
To protect our children 63 2 61 62 75 61 70 55
That is what everyone does here 8 0 6 8 13 5 14 9
Norms about HWWS
Almost everyone in village washes hands with soap after defecation 35 8 36 31 44 36 31 44
Almost everyone in village washes hands with soap before eating 36 10 34 40 31 34 40 31