Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and behavioural risk factors across sex and hypertensive status

From: Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: A population-based survey

  Overall % (n) Male % (n) Female % (n) P value † Hypertensive Normotensive P value‡
Age yrs        
18-24 28.3 (578) 27.7 (291) 28.8 (287) 0.051    
25-34 31.8 (651) 30.1 (316) 33.7 (335)     
35-44 22.1 (452) 22.2 (233) 22.0 (219)     
45-54 12.5 (256) 13.7 (144) 11.3 (112)     
55-64 3.8 (78) 4.8 (50) 2.8 (28)     
65-74 1.2 (25) 1.4 (15) 1.0 (10)     
≥ 75 0.2 (5) 0.1 (1) 0.4 (4)     
18-90 100 (2045) 51.0 (1050) 48.4 (995)     
Years in school, mean (SD) 9.3 (3.3) 9.8 (3.2) 8.7 (3.2) 0.000    
Tobacco smoking        
Current % (n) 13.1 (269) 22 (231) 3.8 (38) 0.000 17.8 (46) 12.5 (223) 0.018
Smoking daily % (n) 84.8 (228) 89.2 (206) 57.9 (22) 0.000 82.6 (38) 85.2 (190) 0.656
Age started yrs mean (SD) 19.7 (5.5) 19.9 (5.7) 18.6 (3.4) 0.304 21.5 (6.8) 19.4 (5.2) 0.037
Age started range yrs 10-45 10-45 10-24 - - - -
Duration years mean (SD) 16.5 (10) 16.4 (10.2) 17.3 (9.1) 0.696 21.4 (11.3) 15.4 (9.5) 0.001
Pack years median (Q1-Q3) 6 (2.5-10.9) 6 (2.4-10.5) 7.5 (4.4-12.0) 0.303 8.3 (3.9-13.8) 6.0 (2.4-10.5) 0.058
Alcohol consumption        
Ever consumed 30.1 (616) 43.2 (454) 16.3(162) 0.000 33.3 (86) 29.7 (529) 0.233
In past 12 months 81.0 (499) 89.6 (407) 56.8 (92) 0.000 76.7 (66) 81.7 (432) 0.281
In past 30 days 76.8 (383) 79.1 (322) 66.3 (61) 0.009 75.8 (50) 77.1 (333) 0.812
Frequency in past 12 months        
Daily 19.1 (95) 22.1 (90) 5.5 (5) 0.008 25.8 (17) 18.1 (78) 0.180
5-6 days/week 14.3 (71) 13.8 (56) 16.5 (15)   7.6 (5) 15.3 (66)  
1-4 days/week 28.7 (143) 27.0 (110) 36.3 (33)   28.8 (19) 28.7 (124)  
1-3 days/week 23.3 (116) 22.9 (93) 25.3 (23)   18.2 (12) 24.1 (104)  
Average number of drinks median (Q1-Q3) 4 (3–6) 4 (3–6) 3 (2–5) 0.087 4 (4–5) 4 (3–6) 0.272
Largest number of drinks/sitting 6 (4.5-9) 6 (5–9) 6 (4–7) 0.026 6 (3–8.5) 6 (5–9) 0.178
Physical Activity        
Work Vigorous 29.6 (606) 39.1 (411) 19.6 (195) 0.000 24.4 (63) 30.5 (543) 0.050
Days/week median (Q1-Q3) 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 6 (3–7) 0.537 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 0.116
Hours/day median (Q1-Q3) 8 (3–9) 8 (4–9) 6 (2–8) 0.000 8 (3–9) 8 (4–9) 0.877
Work moderate 46.1 (943) 39.1 (411) 53.4 (532) 0.000 43.0 (111) 46.6 (830) 0.295
Days/week median (Q1-Q3) 6 (5–7) 6 (4–7) 7 (5–7) 0.000 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 0.420
Hours/day median (Q1-Q3) 6 (3–8) 6 (3–8) 5 (2.1-8.0) 0.000 8 (3–10) 6 (3–8) 0.016
Travel (walk/cycle) 77.4 (1583) 80.3 (843) 74.3 (740) 0.001 70.2 (181) 78.5 (1399) 0.003
Days/week median (Q1-Q3) 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 6 (4–7) 0.001 6 (5–7) 6 (5–7) 0.148
Hours/day median (Q1-Q3) 1 (0.75-2) 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 1 (0.7-2.0) 0.023 1.3 (0.5-3) 1.0 (0.8-2) 0.480
Recreational vigorous 15.2 (311) 21.7 (228) 8.3 (83) 0.000 12.0 (31) 15.7 (280) 0.127
Days/week median (Q1-Q3) 2.0 (1–3) 2.0 (1.0-3.0) 2 (1–3) 0.737 2 (1–5) 2 (1–3) 0.603
Hours/day median (Q1-Q3) 2.0 (0.8-2) 2.0 (1.0-2.0) 1.4 (1–2) 0.142 1.2 (0.5-2) 1.5 (1–2) 0.165
Recreational moderate 16.4 (336) 16.9 (177) 16 (159) 0.586 10.5 (27) 17.3 (309) 0.006
Days/week median (Q1-Q3) 3 (1–6) 3.0 (1.0-6.0) 3 (1–6) 0.986 4 (2–7) 3 (1–6) 0.214
Hours/day median (Q1-Q3) 1 (0.7-2) 1.5 (0.8-2.0) 1 (0.7-2) 0.058 2 (0.5-2) 1 (0.8-2) 0.776
Time sitting/reclining hrs mean(range)+ 4 (2–6) 4.0 (2–6) 4 (2–7) 0.004 5 (2.5-8.0) 4 (2–6) 0.001
METS*, median (Q1-Q3) 10800 (3840–21120) 13474 (5040–24960) 8400 (3168–15630) 0.000 11520 (3840–21110) 10630 (3840–21120) 0.998
  1. +Hours per day; sleeping time not included; *METs = metabolic equivalent minutes per week; Q1-Q3 = inter-quartile range; SD = standard deviation.
  2. †P value for sex comparison. ‡P value for Hypertensive status comparison.