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Table 3 The natural direct effects (NDE), natural indirect effects (NIE: mediated by respondents’ education) and marginal total effects (MTE) expressed as risk ratios (RRs) of childhood financial conditions on measures of subjective health and wellbeing

From: Role of respondents’ education as a mediator and moderator in the association between childhood socio-economic status and later health and wellbeing

Measures of subjective health and wellbeing Childhood financial condition NDE (RR)a 95% CI NIE (RR)a 95% CI MTE (RR)a 95% CI
  Men (n = 3986)
  High 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Low 1.22 1.14-1.31 1.00 1.00-1.01 1.22 1.14-1.31
EQ-5D health dimensions        
- Mobility Low 1.20 0.97-1.49 1.01 0.98-1.04 1.21 0.97-1.51
- Self-care Low 1.88 1.10-3.22 1.01 0.99-1.03 1.89 1.11-3.23
- Usual activities Low 1.35 1.09-1.67 1.01 0.98-1.04 1.36 1.10-1.69
- Pain/discomfort Low 1.20 1.11-1.31 1.00 1.00-1.01 1.21 1.11-1.31
- Anxiety/depression Low 1.88 1.57-2.26 1.00 0.99-1.00 1.88 1.57-2.25
Self-rated health Low 1.31 1.18-1.45 1.00 0.99-1.01 1.32 1.19-1.46
Age-comparative self-rated health Low 1.09 1.03-1.14 1.00 0.99-1.01 1.09 1.04-1.15
Subjective wellbeing Low 1.24 1.18-1.30 1.00 0.99-1.00 1.24 1.18-1.31
  Women (n = 3974)
  High 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Low 1.16 1.10-1.23 1.00 0.98-1.01 1.16 1.10-1.22
EQ-5D health dimensions        
- Mobility Low 1.83 1.54-2.18 0.99 0.98-1.01 1.82 1.53-2.17
- Self-care Low 1.91 1.23-2.97 0.99 0.96-1.02 1.90 1.22-2.96
- Usual activities Low 1.68 1.46-1.94 0.99 0.98-1.01 1.67 1.45-1.93
- Pain/discomfort Low 1.13 1.07-1.21 1.00 0.98-1.01 1.13 1.07-1.20
- Anxiety/depression Low 1.55 1.35-1.77 1.00 0.98-1.01 1.54 1.34-1.76
Self-rated health Low 1.46 1.32-1.61 1.00 0.98-1.01 1.45 1.31-1.60
Age-comparative self-rated health Low 1.03 0.99-1.07 1.00 0.99-1.01 1.03 0.99-1.07
Subjective wellbeing Low 1.26 1.19-1.33 1.00 0.99-1.00 1.25 1.19-1.32
  1. aAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, mothers’ education, and fathers’ education. NDE: Natural direct effects. NIE: Natural indirect effects. MTE: Marginal total effects. CI: confidence interval.