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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Secondary outcomes of a school-based universal resiliency training for adolescents: a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Intervention condition Control condition Total Difference
n =634 n =707 N =1341 I-C
  M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) p
 Gender (%)     .601
 Girls 47.5 47.1 47.3  
 Boys 52.5 52.9 52.7  
 Age 14.0 (0.5) 13.9 (0.6) 13.9 (0.6) .045
 Ethnicity (%)     .002
 Dutch 79.0 86.8 83.1  
 Other ethnicity 21.0 13.2 16.9  
 School level (%)     .015
 PVSE (Low) 11.4 3.1 7.0  
 HGSE (Middle) 48.4 53.6 51.2  
 PUE (High) 40.2 43.3 41.8  
Primary outcome     
 Depressive symptoms 7.4 (5.6) 7.7 (5.8) 7.6 (5.7) .430
Secondary outcomes     
 Anxiety 6.6 (5.6) 6.9 (5.6) 6.8 (5.6) .761
 Hopelessness 3.5 (2.8) 3.6 (2.8) 3.5 (2.8) .666
 Happiness 7.9 (1.4) 7.8 (1.3) 7.8 (1.4) .598
 Life satisfaction 30.6 (7.2) 30.4 (6.8) 30.5 (7.0) .675
 Optimism 15.2 (4.2) 15.4 (4.0) 15.3 (4.1) .008
 Active coping 30.0 (7.2) 29.2 (6.9) 29.6 (7.1) .570
 Cognitive coping 27.6 (7.0) 27.0 (6.7) 27.3 (6.8) .423
 Distraction coping 17.8 (4.6) 17.5 (4.9) 17.7 (4.7) .621
 Avoidance coping 25.5 (5.7) 25.3 (5.6) 25.4 (5.7) .544
 Seeking support coping 18.7 (6.6) 18.3 (6.2) 18.5 (6.4) .688
 Academic self-efficacy 24.6 (5.3) 24.5 (5.2) 24.5 (5.3) .776
 Social self-efficacy 26.6 (4.3) 26.1 (4.3) 26.4 (4.3) .299
 Emotional self-efficacy 24.3 (5.2) 23.9 (5.1) 24.1 (5.2) .316
Ancillary outcomes     
 School grades 7.0 (1.1) 7.0 (1.1) 7.0 (1.1) .638
 Classroom atmosphere 4.0 (0.7) 3.9 (0.7) 4.0 (0.7) .071
 Alcohol use past 4-weeks % 21.0 21.2 21.1 .975
 Current smoking % 5.4 6.1 5.8 .433
 Truancy % 4.4 4.4 4.4 .889
  1. Note. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate differences between I – C. I = intervention group, C = control group. PVSE = pre-vocational secondary education (Dutch translation is VMBO), HGSE = higher general secondary education (HAVO), PUE = pre-university education (VWO). Optimism was not significantly different between conditions when tested separately (OR =0.93, CI 95%: 0.79 – 1.08, p = .337).