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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Utility of obesity indicators for metabolically healthy obesity: an observational study using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010)

  MALE FEMALE
  MHO MS p-value MHO MS p-value
N 871 995   759 1145  
Education [% (SE)] high to university: ≥10 86.0 (1.3) 74.6 (1.6) <.0001 61.6 (2.3) 36.0 (1.8) <.0001
Income [% (SE)] lowest quartile 10.0 (1.2) 13.4 (1.3) 0.0384 16.7 (1.9) 29.9 (1.8) <.0001
Place [% (SE)] Urban 81.2 (2.4) 79.0 (2.5) 0.2802 77.9 (3.0) 72.9 (2.9) 0.0678
Occupation [% (SE)] Yes 82.3 (1.7) 83.3 (1.3) 0.6382 54.1 (2.2) 46.6 (2.0) 0.0121
Smoking [% (SE)]    0.0066    0.5368
non-smoker 25.9 (1.7) 19.0 (1.4)   89.7 (1.4) 90.7 (1.0)  
ex-smoker 29.3 (2.0) 34.4 (1.8)   3.7 (0.8) 4.2 (0.7)  
Current 44.8 (2.0) 46.6 (1.9)   6.6 (1.3) 5.1 (0.8)  
Alcohol use [% (SE)]    0.0777    0.0003
non-drinker 12.2 (1.4) 14.6 (1.3)   29.5 (2.1) 41.3 (1.9)  
mild to moderate-drinker 68.8 (1.9) 62.6 (1.9)   67.5 (2.1) 56.2 (1.9)  
heavy-drinker 19.0 (1.6) 22.8 (1.6)   3.0 (0.7) 2.5 (0.7)  
Exercise [% (SE)] Yes 31.2 (1.8) 25.9 (1.7) 0.0265 28.6(1.9) 25.1 (1.5) 0.1166
Age 39.7 ± 0.6 47.5 ± 0.4 <.0001 44.9 ± 0.6 55.4 ± 0.6 <.0001
Weight (kg) 78.8 ± 0.3 81.0 ± 0.4 <.0001 67.0 ± 0.3 67.6 ± 0.4 0.2185
Height (cm) 171.4 ± 0.3 170.5 ± 0.3 0.0066 156.8 ± 0.3 154.9 ± 0.2 <.0001
BMI 26.8 ± 0.1 27.8 ± 0.1 <.0001 27.2 ± 0.1 28.1 ± 0.1 <.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 89.2 ± 0.3 94.4 ± 0.3 <.0001 85.6 ± 0.3 91.0 ± 0.3 <.0001
Appendicular muscle mass 31.3 ± 0.1 30.3 ± 0.1 <.0001 23.9 ± 0.1 23.6 ± 0.1 0.048
Body fat (%) 25.3 ± 0.2 26.5 ± 0.2 <.0001 37.7 ± 0.2 37.7 ± 0.2 0.8175
WHtR 0.521 0.554 <.0001 0.546 0.588 0.0007
Glucose 94.0 ± 0.6 110.5 ± 1.3 <.0001 92.4 ± 0.4 107.9 ± 1.1 <.0001
Triglyceride* 137.9 ± 3.8 242.9 ± 7.5 <.0001 95.0 ± 1.8 175.0 ± 3.7 <.0001
HDL cholesterol 49.2 ± 0.4 42.6 ± 0.4 <.0001 56.4 ± 0.4 46.8 ± 0.3 <.0001
LDL cholesterol 120.4 ± 1.3 113.3 ± 1.4 <.0001 125.1 ± 1.4 121.1 ± 1.2 0.0338
Total cholesterol 192.2 ± 1.4 196.9 ± 1.4 0.0199 195.5 ± 1.6 198.2 ± 1.4 0.2121
Systolic blood pressure 117.0 ± 0.5 125.5 ± 0.6 <.0001 113.6 ± 0.7 128.9 ± 0.6 <.0001
Diastolic blood pressure 77.8 ± 0.4 83.1 ± 0.4 <.0001 73.4 ± 0.5 79.7 ± 0.3 <.0001
  1. *p-value after log transformation.
  2. Continuous variables (MEAN ± SE) were compared using t-tests and categorical variables [% (SE)] were compared using chi-square tests. Regarding occupation, ‘yes’ denotes any form of employment (e.g. excluding the unemployed, homemakers, students, etc.). Regarding exercise, ‘yes’ denotes more than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity 3 times during a recent week.
  3. BMI, body mass index; WHtR, waist height ratio; BP, blood pressure; MHO, metabolically healthy but obese, defined as a person who satisfies 2 or fewer criteria of metabolic syndrome; MS, metabolic syndrome.