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Table 2 Worker categories to be discussed for inclusion in a targeted bladder cancer screening programme

From: Medical follow-up for workers exposed to bladder carcinogens: the French evidence-based and pragmatic statement

Targeted occupational group (main references) Position Level of risk after analysis of the literature* Period of exposure in France
Rubber industry workers (level of proof 1) [1427] - rubber production workers, using 4-aminobiphenyl and/or β-naphtylamine and its salts and/or MBOCA VERY HIGH Generally before 1989
Before 1950 for subjects exclusively exposed to β-naphtylamine and its salts
Principle exposing positions in rubber and tyre manufacturing include weighing and mixing, finishing and storage, baking or vulcanisation exposing workers to PAHs and nitrosamines. Before 1970 for subjects exclusively exposed to 4-aminobiphenyl
However: harmful residual carcinogenic substances (PAHs and nitrosamines in particular) remained in use in the rubber industry beyond the 1980s.
Dye manufacturing workers (level of proof 1) [2846] - workers in the production of benzidine and/or benzidine-derived and/or auramine-derived and/or ortho-toluidine-derived and/or magenta-derived and/or o-dianisidine-derived and/or o-tolidine-derived and/or 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-derived and/or 2-methoxy 5 methylaniline-derived colouring agents VERY HIGH Generally before 1989
Before 1980 for subjects exclusively exposed to benzidine
Before 1990 for subjects exclusively exposed to ortho-toluidine
- subjects working in production workshops where the aforementioned products are used
Principle exposing activities include: preparation and weighing activities; pigment, colouring agent, paint and varnish manufacturing; quality control, sampling, laboratory and cleaning positions.
Textile industry (dyeing) workers (level of proof 3 to 4) [4750] - yarn dyed fabric workers HIGH Before 1970
However: harmful residual carcinogenic substances (PAHs and nitrosamines in particular) remained in use in the textile dyeing industry beyond the 1970s.
Leather and tanning industry workers (level of proof 3) [5156] - leather shoe and/or boot manufacturing workers HIGH Before 1990
- leather shoe and/or boot repair workers
- tanning, leather goods, leather processing workers
Targeted occupational group (main references) Position Level of risk after analysis of the literature* Period of exposure
Plastics industry workers, if exposed to 4,4’-methylene bis (chloroaniline) (MBOCA) [5769] - workers using epoxy and polyurethane resin hardening agents HIGH Since the 1950s and still in use today
- subjects working in workshops where epoxy and polyurethane resin hardening agents are used
Workers involved in the production of 4-chloro-ortho-toluidine-based pesticides (level of proof 2) [70] - chlordimeform production workers HIGH Before 1986
- subjects working in workshops where chlordimeform has been produced
Workers involved in aluminium production (level of proof 1) [7189] aluminium production workers having used the Søderberg process HIGH Before 1989
Textile industry (weaving) workers (level of proof 2 to 3) [4750] - workers weaving fibre into fabric MODERATE Before 2003
Hairdressers and assimilated professions (level of proof 2) [9098] - hairdressers MODERATE Before 1980
- barbers
- beauticians
Workers involved in the plastics industry in general [5769] -production agents (after detailed assessment of specific exposure to carcinogenic agents, PAHs in particular) MODERATE To the present day
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry workers [99107] -production agents (after detailed assessment of specific exposure to carcinogenic agents) MODERATE To the present day
Printing industry workers [108111] - ink manufacturing MODERATE Before 1970
- printers
Targeted occupational group (main references) Position Level of risk after analysis of the literature* Period of exposure
Iron and/or steel foundry workers [112120] - iron and/or steel production workers (casting and/or knockout in particular) MODERATE To the present day
Workers exposed to coal combustion soot [95, 121] - chimney sweeps MODERATE To the present day
- coal fire boiler room workers and those having manufactured coal nuts Before 2007
Workers involved in coal gas production [122124] - coal gas production workers MODERATE Before 1970
Roof waterproofing work [125128] - roofers MODERATE To the present day
- waterproofing workers
Workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust fumes [129132] - professional diesel engine vehicle drivers: (heavy-goods vehicle drivers, public transport drivers, taxi drivers, work site vehicle drivers, diesel locomotive drivers) MODERATE To the present day
- motor vehicle mechanics
- automobile control technicians (MOT/inspection)
- 2-wheeled vehicle delivery drivers
- police officers
- tollbooth attendants
Metalworkers or fitters exposed to cutting oils and fluids [133140] - metal machining workers MODERATE To the present day
- tool-dressers
- adjusters (tasks: machining, cutting, welding, degreasing, maintenance/trimming)
Painters [141149] - painters MODERATE Before 1970 (after 1980 in the case of use of epoxy or polyurethane anti-corrosion paints)
Transport vehicle repair and construction [95, 139, 150, 151] - tool-dressers MODERATE To the present day
- adjusters
Dry cleaning workers [152159] dry cleaning workers MODERATE To the present day
Wine growers [160] - use of arsenic-based pesticides MODERATE Before 2001
  1. * VERY HIGH relative risk for relative risks (RR), Odds ratios (OR) or Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMR) observed in the scientific literature strictly above 5; HIGH relative risk for RR, OR or SMR strictly above 2 and equal to or below 5 and MODERATE relative risk for RR, OR or SMR strictly above 1 and equal to or below 2.