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Table 3 Multivariate analysis results for children’s stunting and underweight, IHS-2

From: Seasonal variation of child under nutrition in Malawi: is seasonal food availability an important factor? Findings from a national level cross-sectional study

Variable Stunting odds ratio 95% confidence interval Underweight odds ratio 95% confidence interval
Period of interview is September to February 0.80 (0.72,0.90) 0.77 (0.66,0.90)
Reference : March to August     
Child characteristics     
Female 0.80 (0.72,0.89) 0.72 (0.62,0.84)
Reference is Male     
Age squared 0.69 (0.65,0.73) 0.92 (0.84,1.01)
Age 1.42 (1.34,1.51) 1.13 (1.03,1.23)
Child was ill 1.10 (0.99,1.23) 1.18 (1.01,1.38)
Reference: Child was not ill     
Household characteristics     
Annual household expenditure on food 0.92 (0.87,0.98) 0.97 (0.89,1.06)
Medium housing quality ( Household has a permanent roof or an improved floor) 0.91 (0.74,1.12) 0.65 (0.46,0.93)
High housing quality (Household has both a permanent roof and improved floor) 0.70 (0.58,0.86) 0.53 (0.37,0.75)
Missing 0.78 (0.32,1.86) 1.71 (0.66,4.41)
Reference: Poor Housing quality (household has neither a permanent roof nor an improved floor)     
Household has a toilet facility 0.94 (0.80,1.11) 1.14 (0.89,1.46)
Missing 1.01 (0.46,2.18) 1.40 (0.55,3.55)
Reference: No toilet facility     
Household has protected water source 0.88 (0.77,1.00) 0.80 (0.66,0.97)
Missing 1.21 (0.69,2.11) 0.89 (0.35,2.24)
Reference: No protected water source     
Household head’s qualification:     
Primary school certificate 0.89 (0.73,1.06) 0.78 (0.57,1.06)
Secondary school certificate or higher 0.84 (0.70,1.03) 0.71 (0.50,1.00)
Missing 1.00 (0.43,2.36) 0.51 (0.19,1.35)
Reference: No education)     
Location characteristics     
Central region 1.19 (1.03,1.39) 1.13 (0.90,1.42)
Southern region 0.96 (0.82,1.12) 1.03 (0.81,1.30)
Reference: Northern Region     
Rural 0.93 (0.77,1.13) 0.81 (0.60,1.07)
Reference: Urban