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Table 1 Evidence for barriers to sharing of routinely collected public health data

From: A systematic review of barriers to data sharing in public health

Category Barrier Peer-reviewed Non peer-reviewed
   Empirical data Non-empirical*  
Technical 1. Data not collected [6, 21, 24, 31] [2, 4, 7, 18, 22, 14, 2628, 30] [3, 23, 25]
  2. Data not preserved   [33] [3, 32, 34, 35]
  3. Data not found   [45] [3, 34]
  4. Language barrier    [36]
  5. Restrictive data format   [40] [3, 34, 3639, 41]
  6. Technical solutions not available   [42] [37]
  7. Lack of metadata and standards [21, 24, 43] [40, 44, 45] [1, 3537, 39, 41, 46]
Motivational 8. No incentives   [27, 45, 49] [35]
  9. Opportunity cost [51, 52] [13, 33, 50, 53] [35]
  10. Possible criticism   [33] [32]
  11. Disagreement on data use [21] [49]  
Economic 12. Possible economic damage   [7, 26, 27, 30] [55]
  13. Lack of resources [56, 21] [13, 27, 28, 30, 42, 53, 57] [3, 23, 3436, 39, 37]
Political 14. Lack of trust [19, 59, 60] [33, 61] [3437]
  15. Restrictive policies   [30]  
  16. Lack of guidelines   [45, 62, 65] [37, 41, 63, 64]
Legal 17. Ownership and copyright   [62, 65, 66, 69] [37, 63, 64, 67]
  18. Protection of privacy [12, 19, 59, 73, 75] [44, 57, 62, 66, 72, 74] [36, 37, 64, 67, 68, 70, 71]
Ethical 19. Lack of proportionality    [76]
  20. Lack of reciprocity [51, 52] [50, 77, 78]  
Number of unique documents (% of total) 14 (21.5%) 30 (46.2%) 21 (32.3%)
  1. *No or little original data presented.