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Table 1 Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of study participants at 31/12/2013

From: Susceptibility to particle health effects, miRNA and exosomes: rationale and study protocol of the SPHERE study

Characteristics Categories n = 1250
Sex Male 330 (26.4%)
  Female 920 (73.6%)
Age Years (mean ± SD) 51.9 ± 13.6
Education Primary school or less 105 (8.4%)
  Secondary school 325 (26.0%)
  High school 493 (39.4%)
  University 188 (15.0%)
  Others 87 (7.0%)
  Missing 52 (4.2%)
Occupation Employee 714 (57.1%)
  Unemployed 102 (8.2%)
  Pensioner 304 (24.3%)
  Housewife 93 (7.4%)
  Missing 37 (3.0%)
Ethnicity White 1198(95.8%)
  Black 11 (0.9%)
  Asian 3 (0.3%)
  South America 38 (3.0%)
Year of enrollment 2010 129 (10.3%)
  2011 419 (33.5%)
  2012 385 (30.8%)
  2013 317 (25.4%)
Season of enrollment Winter 320 (25.6%)
  Spring 313 (25.0%)
  Summer 190 (15.2%)
  Autumn 427 (34.2%)
Smoking Never 599 (47.9%)
  Former 431 (34.5%)
  Current 190 (15.2%)
  Missing 30 (2.4%)
Cigarettes smoked* [cigarettes/day] <= 5 53 (27.9%)
  5-10 53 (27.9%)
  10-15 33 (17.4%)
  15-20 37 (19.6%)
  20-40 13 (6.8%)
  Missing 1 (0.5%)
Time since quitting (n = 419) Median [Q1, Q3] 13.1 [5.8–23.4]
Pack/years (n = 1153) Median [Q1, Q3]  
Among current and former smokers   14.5 [6.1–28.0]
Including nonsmokers   0 [0–13.5]
Alcohol consumption Yes 636 (50.9%)
  No 518 (41.4%)
  Missing 96 (7.7%)
Residence area City 534 (42.7%)
  Peripheral area 331 (26.5%)
  Rural area 30 (2.4%)
  Village/small city 206 (16.5%)
  Missing 149 (11.9%)
Living area Province of Milan (Excluding City of Milan) 379 (30.3%)
  City of Milan 713 (57.0%)
  Outside Milan 158 (12.7%)
Work area Province of Milan (Excluding City of Milan) 94 (13.1%)
  City of Milan 339 (47.5%)
  Outside Milan 34 (4.8%)
  Missing 247 (34.6%)
Floor of residence Ground floor 223 (17.8%)
  First floor 244 (19.5%)
  Second floor 156 (12.5%)
  Beyond second floor 471 (37.7%)
  Missing 156 (12.5.%)
Residence traffic exposure Mild 108 (8.7%)
  Moderate 595 (47.6%)
  Heavy 369 (29.5%)
  Missing 178 (14.2%)
  1. *Among current smokers; Q1: first quartile; Q3: third quartile.