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Table 3 Three models of multivariable logistic regression investigating factors associated with stunting among children under-5 years of age in Rwanda

From: Impact of implementing performance-based financing on childhood malnutrition in Rwanda

  I: AOR (95% CI) II: AOR (95% CI) III: AOR (95% CI)
Child characteristics
Sex    
 Male 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Female 0.90 (0.65 - 1.26) 1.03 (0.73 - 1.46) 1.01 (0.71 - 1.44)
Age in months    
 0-5 months 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 6-11 months 1.35 (0.62 – 2.92) 1.28 (0.57 - 2.87) 1.25 (0.56 - 2.81)
 12-23 months 2.70 (1.33 - 5.49) 2.78 (1.31 - 5.92) 2.83 (1.33 - 5.92)
 24-35 months 1.04 (0.54 - 2.01) 1.06 (0.53 - 2.12) 1.06 (0.53 - 2.12)
 36-47 months 1.60 (0.83 - 3.08) 1.40 (0.70 - 2.81) 1.39 (0.69 - 2.80)
 48-60 months 1.49 (0.79 – 2.83) 1.68 (0.84 - 3.38) 1.71 (0.85 - 3.45)
Health insurance    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 0.83 (0.53 - 1.30) 1.01 (0.63 - 1.62) 1.02 (0.63 - 1.65)
HIV status    
 Negative 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive 1.82 (0.76 - 4.36) 1.55 (0.59 - 4.05) 1.59 (0.60 - 4.18)
Recent illness    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 1.10 (0.75 - 1.51) 1.03 (0.70 - 1.52) 1.04 (0.70 - 1.55)
Maternal characteristics
Education    
 None   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Primary   1.21 (0.77 - 1.89) 1.27 (0.81 - 1.99)
 > Primary   1.09 (0.56 - 2.13) 1.12 (0.57 - 2.18)
Age (continuous)   0.99 (0.96 - 1.03) 0.99 (0.96 - 1.03)
Marital status    
 Married   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Divorced/widowed   1.08 (0.69 - 1.70) 1.10 (0.69 - 1.74)
 Never married   1.04 (0.54 - 2.00) 1.00 (0.51 - 1.96)
HIV status    
 Negative   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive   1.07 (0.72 - 1.59) 1.08 (0.72 - 1.62)
Emotional problems    
 No   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes   1.00 (1.00 - 1.01) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.01)
Social functioning    
 High   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Low   1.00 (0.99 - 1.01) 1.00 (0.99 - 1.01)
Physical health    
 Good   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Poor   1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Household characteristics
Catastrophic health expenditure    
 <20% income spent    1.00 (−−)
 20% - 40% income spent    0.93 (0.45 - 1.91)
 ≥ 40% income spent    0.82 (0.34 - 1.95)
Have other children under 5 years    
 No    1.00 (−−)
 Yes    1.10 (0.86 - 1.4)
Performance-based financing
 Lives in Phase II district    1.00 (−−)
 Lives in Phase 0 district    0.90 (0.55 - 1.48)
 Lives in Phase I district    0.98 (0.67 - 1.44)
  1. AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. I: Adjusted for child characteristics.
  3. II: Adjusted for child characteristics and maternal characteristics.
  4. III: Adjusted for child characteristics, maternal characteristics, household characteristics and PBF.
  5. Bold typeface indicates factors significantly associated with malnutrition at the 0.05 significance level.