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Table 4 Associations between health literacy scales and socio-economic characteristics

From: National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults

  Understanding1 Engagement1
  Univariate2 Adjusted3 Univariate2 Adjusted3
  β (95% CI) Β (95% CI) Β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Sex (reference group: female)         
   Male -0.01 (-0.03, 0.00) -0.04 (-0.06, -0.03) 0.06 (0.04, 0.08) 0.03 (0.01, 0.05)
Age (reference group: age 25–44)         
   45-64 -0.06 (-0.08, -0.04) -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) 0.00 (-0.02, 0.02) 0.02 (-0.00, 0.04)
   65-84 -0.08 (-0.10, -0.06) 0.07 (0.04, 0.09) 0.06 (0.04, 0.08) 0.18 (0.16, 0.21)
   = > 85 -0.34 (-0.42, -0.27) -0.13 (-0.22, -0.05) -0.14 (-0.21, -0.06) 0.07 (-0.02, 0.15)
Origin (reference group: Danish)         
   Immigrant -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09) -0.09 (-0.17, -0.02) -0.18 (-0.22, -0.13) -0.09 (-0.17, -0.01)
Mother tongue (reference group: Danish)         
   Other language -0.12 (-0.16, -0.08) -0.02 (-0.08, 0.04) -0.15 (-0.19, -0.11) -0.03 (-0.10, 0.03)
Living situation (reference group: With others)         
   Alone -0.11 (-0.13, -0.09) -0.05 (-0.07, -0.03) -0.08 (-0.11, -0.06) -0.06 (-0.09, -0.04)
Education level (reference group: High)         
   Medium -0.21 (-0.23, -0.20) -0.19 (-0.21, -0.18) -0.13 (-0.15, -0.11) -0.13 (-0.15, -0.11)
   Low -0.44 (-0.47, -0.42) -0.38 (-0.41, -0.35) -0.26 (-0.29, -0.24) -0.25 (-0.28, -0.22)
Income (DKK) 4 (reference group: >700,000)         
   0-149,000 -0.37 (-0.42, -0.33) -0.25 (-0.30, -0.21) -0.32 (-0.37, -0.28) -0.26 (-0.31, -0.21)
   150,000 -374,000 -0.26 (-0.30, -0.22) -0.18 (-0.22, -0.14) -0.25 (-0.29, -0.21) -0.18 (-0.23, -0.14)
   375,000-699,000 -0.13 (-0.17, -0.09) -0.10 (-0.14, -0.06) -0.12 (-0.16, -0.08) -0.09 (-0.13, -0.05)
  1. Mean scale scores allowing for two missing responses are used as dependent variable in the regression models; statistically significant differences are printed in bold (p< 0.05). The sample is weighted based on register data to represent the population of the Central Denmark Region 2013.
  2. 1See Table 1 for description of scales.
  3. 2Unadjusted models of the association between each socio-economic characteristic for the scales ‘Understanding’ and ‘Engagement’. Number of individuals varies for the different models due to missing data in the respective socio-economic factor. ‘Understanding’: n= 26,557-27,512. ‘Engagement’: n= 26,589-27,549.
  4. 3Model adjusted for all the socio-economic characteristics in table and for the confounder ‘visit at the general practitioner in the last year’. ‘Understanding’: n= 25,486, ‘Engagement’: n= 25,514.
  5. 4Personal annual gross income. Exchange rate: 7.46 DKK/1 €.
  6. Unadjusted and adjusted models, Central Denmark Region 2013.