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Table 4 Odds ratios and 95% CI of incident overweight or obesity at follow-up in 6 496 participants of the SUN project according to categories of white bread and whole-grain bread consumption a

From: Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

White bread   Frequency Consumption Categories  
  ≤ 1/week 2-6/week 1/day ≥ 2/day p for trend
Participants (n) 1 755 1 411 1 939 1 391  
Incident cases overweight/obesity 214 211 261 257  
Age- and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.91-1.39) 1.06 (0.87-1.30) 1.23 (1.00-1.51) 0.066
Multivariate adjusted OR1 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.14 (0.89-1.45) 1.10 (0.88-1.38) 1.39 (1.10-1.76) 0.006
Multivariate adjusted OR2 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.89-1.44) 1.10 (0.87-1.39) 1.40 (1.08-1.80) 0.011
Multivariate adjusted OR3 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.89-1.44) 1.11 (0.88-1.40) 1.40 (1.08-1.82) 0.011
Multivariate adjusted OR4 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.14 (0.90-1.46) 1.11 (0.88-1.40) 1.40 (1.08-1.81) 0.008
Multivariate adjusted OR5 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.14 (0.90-1.50) 1.12 (0.89-1.41) 1.43 (1.11-1.86) 0.015
Whole-grain bread   Frequency Consumption Categories  
  ≤ 1/week 2-6/week 1/day ≥ 2/day p for trend
Participants (n) 5 336 543 456 161  
Incident cases overweight/obesity 804 72 52 15  
Age- and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.01 (0.78-1.33) 0.87 (0.64-1.19) 0.63 (0.36-1.10) 0.089
Multivariate adjusted OR1 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.06 (0.78-1.44) 0.83 (0.58-1.18) 0.64 (0.35-1.18) 0.112
Multivariate adjusted OR2 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.07 (0.79-1.46) 0.84 (0.58-1.20) 0.66 (0.35-1.24) 0.161
Multivariate adjusted OR3 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.07 (0.79-1.46) 0.83 (0.58-1.20) 0.66 (0.35-1.23) 0.159
Multivariate adjusted OR4 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.08 (0.79-1.47) 0.84 (0.58-1.20) 0.66 (0.35-1.23) 0.200
Multivariate adjusted OR5 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.08 (0.79-1.47) 0.84 (0.58-1.20) 0.66 (0.35-1.24) 0.210
  1. aOne portion of white bread or whole-grain bread was specified as 60 g or 3 slices.
  2. OR Odd Ratio.
  3. CI Confidence Interval.
  4. 1adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI.
  5. 2adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, and total energy intake.
  6. 3adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, total energy intake, and protein percentage.
  7. 4adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, total energy intake, and olive oil consumption.
  8. 5adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, total energy intake, olive oil consumption, soft-drinks, and fast-food consumption.