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Table 3 Odds ratios and 95% CI of incident overweight or obesity at follow-up in 6 496 participants of the SUN project according to quintiles of glycemic index and glycemic load

From: Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

    Quintiles Glycemic Index  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 p for trend
Participants (n) 1 270 1 304 1 324 1 316 1 282  
Incident cases overweight/obesity 178 189 188 177 211  
Age- and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.98 (0.78-1.22) 0.93 (0.74-1.17) 0.82 (0.65-1.03) 0.95 (0.76-1.19) 0.342
Multivariate adjusted OR1 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.02 (0.79-1.32) 0.99 (0.76-1.29) 0.83 (0.64-1.08) 1.12 (0.87-1.45) 0.807
Multivariate adjusted OR2 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.00 (0.77-1.30) 0.97 (0.74-1.26) 0.80 (0.61-1.05) 1.07 (0.82-1.40) 0.907
Multivariate adjusted OR3 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.76-1.30) 0.96 (0.73-1.26) 0.79 (0.60-1.05) 1.06 (0.80-1.40) 0.871
Multivariate adjusted OR4 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.00 (0.77-1.30) 0.97 (0.74-1.26) 0.80 (0.61-1.05) 1.07 (0.80-1.40) 0.785
    Quintiles Glycemic Load  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 p for trend
Participants (n) 1 186 1 321 1 318 1 368 1 303  
Incident cases overweight/obesity 166 219 187 182 189  
Age- and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.19 (0.95-1.49) 0.98 (0.78-1.24) 0.86 (0.68-1.08) 0.81 (0.64-1.03) 0.004
Multivariate adjusted OR1 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.21 (0.93-1.57) 1.04 (0.80-1.36) 0.96 (0.74-1.25) 1.02 (0.78-1.33) 0.516
Multivariate adjusted OR2 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.12 (0.85-1.47) 0.91 (0.67-1.24) 0.79 (0.56-1.12) 0.77 (0.51-1.18) 0.075
Multivariate adjusted OR3 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.09 (0.83-1.45) 0.88 (0.64-1.22) 0.76 (0.53-1.10) 0.73 (0.47-1.15) 0.053
Multivariate adjusted OR4 (95% CI) 1 (Ref.) 1.12 (0.85-1.48) 0.92 (0.67-1.30) 0.80 (0.56-1.14) 0.78 (0.51-1.20) 0.064
  1. Q1-Q5: lowest to highest quintile.
  2. OR Odd Ratio.
  3. CI Confidence Interval.
  4. 1adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI.
  5. 2adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, and total energy intake.
  6. 3adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, total energy intake, and protein percentage.
  7. 4adjusted by age, sex, physical activity, time spent in TV watching, total time of sedentary activities, smoking status, baseline BMI, fiber intake, total energy intake, and olive oil consumption.