Skip to main content

Table 2 Main characteristics (mean and standard deviation (s.d.)) of the 9 267 participants of the SUN project according to categories of white bread and whole-grain bread consumption a

From: Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

White bread ≤ 1/week 2-6/week 1/day ≥ 2/day P b
Participants (n) 2 474 2 010 2 680 2 103  
White bread (g/day) 3 (4) 36 (11) 60 (0) 171 (62) <0.001
Age (years) 37.7 (11.7) 37.2 (11.3) 37.0 (10.9) 39.2 (11.6) <0.001
Baseline BMI (kg/m2) 23.5 (3.4) 23.6 (3.3) 23.3 (3.2) 23.9 (3.4) <0.001
Baseline weight (kg) 66.8 (13.4) 68.1 (13.5) 66.8 (12.8) 70.2 (13.4) <0.001
Physical activity during leisure time (MET-h/week) 25.1 (23.1) 24.3 22.8 24.3 21.8 24.3 20.9 0.45
Weight change (kg/year) 0.2 (1) 0.3 (1) 0.2 (0.9) 0.3 (1) 0.14
TV (h/day) 1.7 (1.3) 1.6 (1.2) 1.6 (1.3) 1.6 (1.2) 0.78
Sitting (h/day) 2.9 (2.4) 3.1 (2.4) 3.0 (2.5) 3.1 (2.5) 0.09
Sex (%)      <0.001
  Men 38.4 46.8 41.6 59.2  
Smoking status (%)      0.32
  Current smoker 26.8 26.8 24.6 25.2  
  Ex-smoker 27.4 26.7 28.1 29.1  
Energy (kcal/day) 2 133 (629) 2 261 (570) 2 441 (552) 2 767 (532) <0.001
Carbohydrates (% E) 41 (8) 43 (6) 44 (6) 47 (6) <0.001
Protein (% E) 19 (4) 18 (3) 18 (3) 17 (2) <0.001
Fat (% E) 38 (7) 38 (6) 37 (6) 34 (6) <0.001
  SFA (% E) 13.2 (3.8) 13.0 (2.9) 12.7 (2.8) 11.6 (2.5) <0.001
  MUFA (% E) 16.2 (4.3) 15.6 (3.2) 15.8 (3.4) 14.7 (3.4) <0.001
  PUFA (% E) 5.3 (1.7) 5.4 (1.5) 5.3 (1.5) 5.0 (1.5) <0.001
Fiber (g/day) 27 14) 25 (11) 27 (11) 28 (10) <0.001
Pure alcohol (g/day) 6.5 (11.1) 6.9 (9.9) 6.7 (9.8) 8.3 (11.6) <0.001
Vegetables (g/day) 525 (364) 468 (283) 504 (297) 473 (289) <0.001
Fruit (g/day) 343 (313) 298 (233) 354 (311) 307 (249) <0.001
Legumes (g/day) 24 (25) 23 (14) 22 (12) 23 (14) <0.001
Whole grain bread (g/day) 21 (41) 9 (23) 9 (26) 6 (22) <0.001
Dairy products (g/day) 196 (211) 208 (193) 237 (210) 240 (209) <0.001
Meat and meat products (g/day) 167 (84) 178 (75) 179 (72) 185 (71) <0.001
Fish and seafood (g/day) 98 (66) 97 (57) 96 (59) 92 (50) 0.001
Processed pastries (g/day) 12 (19) 15 (20) 16 (22) 17 (24) <0.001
Soft-drinks (g/day) 67 (150) 66 (118) 59 (95) 58 (119) 0.033
Fast-food (g/day) 19 (20) 23 (21) 22 (20) 21 (19) <0.001
Olive oil (g/day) 19 (18) 16 (14) 22 (17) 25 (20) <0.001
Mediterranean dietary patternb 4.0 (1.8) 3.9 (1.8) 4.3 (1.8) 4.7 (1.7) <0.001
Whole-grain bread ≤ 1/week 2-6/week 1/day ≥ 2/day P b
Participants (n) 7672 771 603 221  
Whole grain bread (g/day) 1 (2) 32 (10) 60 (0) 162 (47) <0.001
Age (years) 37.7 (11.4) 37.6 (11.1) 37.9 (11.6) 41.1 (11.6) <0.001
Baseline BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 (3.3) 23.5 (3.4) 23.2 (3.2) 23.3 (3.1) 0.006
Baseline weight (kg) 68.2 (13.4) 67.1 (13.7) 64.8 (11.9) 65.6 (12.3) <0.001
Physical activity during leisure time (MET-h/week) 23.9 (21.5) 27.4 (26.2) 25.8 (22.4) 30.3 (25.6) <0.001
Weight change (kg/year) 0.23 (0.9) 0.26 (1.1) 0.23 (1) 0.09 (0.82) 0.16
TV (h/day) 1.6 (1.2) 1.6 (1.1) 1.7 (1.4) 1.7 (1.4) 0.21
Sitting (h/day) 3.0 (2.4) 2.9 (2.3) 2.9 (2.6) 2.8 (2.2) 0.06
Sex (%)      <0.001
  Men 48.4 36.6 29.0 34.8  
Smoking status (%)      0.14
Current smoker 26.4 23.3 23.2 19.5  
Ex-smoker 27.3 29.1 31.0 33.9  
Energy (kcal/day) 2384 (625) 2323 (580) 2478 (572) 2733 (513) <0.001
Carbohydrates (% E) 44 (7) 44 (7) 45 (7) 49 (7) <0.001
Protein (% E) 18 (3) 18 (3) 18 (3) 17 (3) <0.001
Fat (% E) 37 (6) 35 (6) 35 (7) 33 (6) <0.001
  SFA (% E) 12.9 (3.1) 11.9 (3.0) 11.3 (2.9) 10.2 (2.5) <0.001
  MUFA (% E) 15.7 (3.6) 14.9 (3.4) 15.1 (3.7) 14.4 (3.8) <0.001
  PUFA (% E) 5.3 (1.6) 4.9 (1.3) 4.9 (1.5) 4.6 (1.3) <0.001
Fiber (g/day) 25 (11) 30 (12) 35 (12) 44 (13) <0.001
Pure alcohol (g/day) 7.2 (10.9) 6.4 (8.4) 5.9 (9.5) 6.2 (9.8) 0.008
Vegetables (g/day) 475 (306) 575 (323) 606 (329) 588 (315) <0.001
Fruit (g/day) 313 (276) 365 (280) 427 (317) 454 (362) <0.001
Legumes (g/day) 23 (18) 23 (15) 23 (15) 19 (9) 0.016
White bread (g/day) 70 (70) 36 (47) 43 (52) 33 (53) <0.001
Dairy products (g/day) 230 (212) 179 (185) 170 (166) 164 (169) <0.001
Meat and meat products (g/day) 180 (76) 154 (76) 164 (81) 156 (71) <0.001
Fish and seafood (g/day) 94 (59) 105 (56) 105 (59) 109 (62) <0.001
Processed pastries (g/day) 16 (22) 12 (16) 10 (14) 11 (19) <0.001
Soft-drinks (g/day) 64 (123) 63 (126) 51 (101) 42 (118) 0.006
Fast-food (g/day) 22 (20) 21 (21) 18 (17) 15 (15) <0.001
Olive oil (g/day) 20 (18) 19 (15) 25 (19) 29 (20) <0.001
Mediterranean dietary patternc 4.0 (1.7) 4.8 (1.7) 5.2 (1.7) 5.5 (1.6) <0.001
  1. aOne portion of white bread or whole-grain bread was specified as 60 g or 3 slices.
  2. bP value for comparison between-groups calculated by one-factor ANOVA for continuous variables or the χ 2 test for categorical variables.
  3. cTrichopoulou score (range of scores, 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater adherence).