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Table 2 Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the CUBEST

From: Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

Item Inter-rater Reliability (n = 309) Intra-rater Reliability (n = 208)
Agreement (%) Kappa/ICCs PABAK Prevalence Index Bias Index Agreement (%) Kappa/ICCs PABAK Prevalence Index Bias Index
Residential Density   0.853      0.563    
Row houses of 1–3 stories 100 NA     100 NA    
Apartment or condos 1–6 stories 94 0.776 0.871 0.65 0.02 83 0.367 0.663 0.69 0.06
Apartment or condos 7–12 stories 97 0.821 0.935 0.80 0.03 88 0.441 0.769 0.77 0.07
Apartments or condos more than 13 stories 95 0.811 0.909 0.72 0.01 89 0.500 0.788 0.76 0.01
Street Connectivity   0.902      0.721    
Number of intersections   0.961      0.798    
Presence of bus or other transit stops 99 0.992 0.990 0.38 0.01 96 0.891 0.913 0.45 0.04
Number of transit stops   0.972      0.786    
Accessibility   0.912      0.758    
Fast food restaurant 91 0.819 0.819 0.03 0.04 86 0.689 0.692 0.10 0.01
Other restaurant 88 0.718 0.767 0.42 0.01 81 0.522 0.625 0.47 0.04
Convenience or small grocery store 91 0.764 0.812 0.45 0.01 78 0.454 0.558 0.44 0.08
Supermarket 96 0.857 0.922 0.68 0.02 91 0.691 0.827 0.65 0.01
Shopping mall or Department store 93 0.733 0.851 0.67 0.04 83 0.414 0.663 0.66 0.09
Coffee shop or Tea house or Bar 94 0.809 0.877 0.60 0.01 86 0.528 0.711 0.63 0.05
Other retail stores 86 0.705 0.728 0.28 0 67 0.313 0.346 0.36 0.28
Other public or government service destinations 90 0.806 0.806 0.01 0.01 72 0.446 0.442 0.03 0.09
Other recreational destinations 95 0.830 0.909 0.68 0.03 79 0.313 0.576 0.63 0.12
Sidewalks/Bike lane 96 0.909 0.922 0.38 0.01 90 0.792 0.808 0.28 0.03
Indoor recreation or exercise facility 99 0.887 0.994 0.97 0.01 99 0.564 0.971 0.97 0.01
Outdoor sports/playing field 100 1.000     99 NA    
Public recreational equipments 99 0.916 0.974 0.83 0.01 96 0.744 0.923 0.84 0
School with recreational facilities 100 NA     100 NA    
Neighborhood public park 99 0.964 0.994 0.91 0.01 96 0.316 0.923 0.94 0.02
Municipal public park 99 0.897 0.987 0.94 0 100 1.000    
Public open space that is not a park 99 0.918 0.981 0.87 0.01 93 0.426 0.865 0.88 0.01
Lake or Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal 97 0.852 0.948 0.81 0.01 94 0.617 0.885 0.84 0.03
Parking lot or parking garage 86 0.712 0.715 0.11 0.05 73 0.459 0.461 0.14 0.13
Abandoned building or vacant lot 98 0.776 0.961 0.91 0.01 91 −0.044 0.817 0.91 0.02
Railroad, bridge, tunnel, or highway 97 0.852 0.948 0.81 0 92 0.537 0.846 0.82 0.01
Walkability (segments with sidewalks)   0.788      0.360    
Presence of sidewalks 98 0.959     90 0.894    
Sidewalk width 94 0.740     78 0.256    
Evenness and sidewalks maintenance 87 NA     83 NA    
Slope 99 NA     90 NA    
Obstructions on sidewalks 75 0.834     66 0.357    
Signs of “Avoid Pedestrians”/“Slow Down” 83 0.825     55 0.484    
Bikeability (segments with bike lanes)   0.766      0.587    
Presence of bike lane or marked shoulder 99 0.985     96 0.948    
Evenness and Bike lanes maintenance 96 0.308     93 0.910    
Slope 99 NA     99 NA    
Presence of speed limit signs on motor vehicle lanes 96 0.925 0.929 0.21 0.01 86 0.693 0.711 0.25 0.05
Street design to reduce volume or speed 84 0.882     67 0.744    
Crossing aids for pedestrians and bicyclists to cross the street safely 86 0.917     65 0.793    
Cars running or parked on bike lanes 74 0.757     58 0.468    
Cycling or walking against the flow of traffic on bike lanes 64 0.638     55 0.464    
Aesthetic   0.771      0.710    
Cultural landscape in the neighborhood 84 0.846     70 0.722    
Natural sights in the neighborhood 63 0.822     65 0.764    
Whole or broken liquor bottles or cans 100 NA     99 NA    
Cigar butts or discarded cigarette 76 0.391     64 0.314    
Garbage, litter, or broken glass 61 0.548     57 0.472    
Graffiti on the buildings, signs or walls 100 1.000     97 NA    
Unattended pets or lost animals 99 NA     96 NA