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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of air pollution and other risk factors for respiratory symptoms by gender

From: Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

  Wheezing with shortness of breath Wheezing with medication Any wheezing Cough at night Chronic cough Phlegm with colds Phlegm without colds Sneeze with itchy-watery eyes
Boys         
MPD 0.64 0.80 0.86 1.43# 0.93 0.88 0.66 0.75
(LPD as ref) (0.16, 2.60) (0.28, 2.35) (0.36, 2.05) (0.98, 2.08) (0.46, 1.87) (0.62, 1.26) (0.34, 1.30) (0.53, 1.06)
HPD 2.82# 2.47# 2.09# 1.12 0.83 1.25 1.71# 0.85
(LPD as ref) (0.95, 8.34) (0.98, 6.21) (0.93, 4.69) (0.72, 1.74) (0.37, 1.89) (0.85, 1.82) (0.94, 3.10) (0.58, 1.24)
Low birth weight      3.27**    
     (1.48, 7.25)    
Physical activity       0.77#   
      (0.57, 1.04)   
Member of team sports   0.30# 0.21*      
  (0.09, 1.05) (0.06, 0.70)      
Mould 3.18* 2.82* 2.24* 1.83***   1.55*   1.32
  (1.19, 8.54) (1.24, 6.39) (1.10, 4.56) (1.27, 2.64)   (1.11, 2.19)   (0.94, 1.84)
Passive smoking    1.90#    1.31   
   (0.92, 3.93)    (0.92, 1.86)   
More-ventilated in summer         0.68*
        (0.51, 0.92)
More-ventilated in winter 3.25        
(0.71, 14.9)        
Girls         
MPD 0.75 0.75 1.68 1.65* 1.16 1.05 1.44 0.81
(LPD as ref) (0.15, 3.68) (0.23, 2.43) (0.68, 4.17) (1.08, 2.52) (0.48, 2.82) (0.72, 1.53) (0.58, 3.54) (0.55, 1.19)
HPD 1.01 1.00 1.53 1.81** 2.03# 1.36 3.84*** 0.75
(LPD as ref) (0.24, 4.34) (0.32, 3.10) (0.61, 3.86) (1.17, 2.78) (0.88, 4.70) (0.93, 1.99) (1.74, 8.47) (0.50, 1.12)
Low birth weight 4.54*     2.42*    
(1.25, 16.4)     (1.02, 5.74)    
More outdoors     1.44* 1.70    
    (1.03, 2.01) (0.84, 3.43)    
Mould      3.28*** 1.77*** 1.79 2.33***
     (1.65, 6.52) (1.25, 2.51) (0.89, 3.58) (1.65, 3.31)
Pets   0.17#       
  (0.02, 1.31)       
New furniture     1.56*     
    (1.05, 2.31)     
Incense      2.10*    1.41#
     (1.01, 4.36)    (0.96, 2.07)
Passive smoking     1.46*    2.32*  
    (1.01, 2.10)    (1.19, 4.51)  
More-ventilated in winter   6.65#       
  (0.86, 51.1)       
  1. LPD: low-pollution district; MPD: moderate-pollution district; HPD: high-pollution district.
  2. #P < 0.10; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.
  3. District (indicating air pollution), age, father’s occupation, birth place were forcibly included in the models. Other factors were selected using the stepwise method and the entry and removal criteria of variables were P = 0.10 and P = 0.15, respectively.
  4. The variables presented with adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were included in the final models, and the remaining variables (with adjusted ORs only) were adjusted for the variables included in the final models only.
  5. Parental asthma was adjusted for in all models of wheezing symptoms (adjusted ORs: 2.44-6.62, P < 0.05); Parental allergy was adjusted for in all models except for wheezing symptoms among boys, phlegm without colds among both genders (adjusted ORs: 1.48-4.07, P < 0.05).