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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study participants in Shaanxi province, northwestern China

From: Urban, semi-urban and rural difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Shaanxi province, northwestern China: a population-based survey

Variable Urban Semi-urban Rural
Number 1467 839 890
Age, years 43.8 ± 14.3 42.7 ± 13.0 44.3 ± 13.5
Sex (male), n (%) 625 (42.6) 335 (39.9) 375 (42.1)
Ethnics (Han), n (%) 1423 (98.7) 821 (99.6)* 870 (98.2)
Educational level, n (%)    
   Elementary school or below 359 (24.9) 142 (17.8)* 180 (20.3)
   Secondary school 613 (42.6) 335 (42.0) 602 (67.9)**
   College or above 467 (32.5) 321 (40.2)* 104 (11.7)**
Yearly family income, n (%) (n = 1266) (n = 756) (n = 801)
   10000 CNY or below 490 (38.7) 307 (40.6) 501 (62.5)**
   10000-30000 CNY 571 (45.1) 339 (44.8) 257 (32.1)**
   30000 CNY or above 205 (16.2) 110 (14.6) 43 (5.4)**
Cigarette smoking, n (%) 348 (23.7) 187 (22.3) 218 (24.5)
Alcohol drinking, n (%) 393 (27.0) 210 (25.1) 166 (18.9)**
Physical activities, n (%) 568 (38.9) 375 (44.9)* 257 (29.1)**
Soft drinks, n (%)    
   Once or below per week 1165 (81.7) 699 (85.3) 772 (88.0)**
   2-4 times per week 159 (11.2) 72 (8.8) 83 (9.5)
   5 times or above per week 102 (7.2) 48 (5.9) 22 (2.5)**
Family history of DM, n (%) 182 (13.2) 99 (12.6) 68 (9.7)**
Family history of HT, n (%) 528 (36.0) 319 (38.0) 340 (38.2)
Waist circumference, cm 81.8 ± 10.2 81.5 ± 9.9 82.7 ± 10.6**
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 119.6 ± 18.8 118.8 ± 19.2 125.1 ± 22.1**
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77.2 ± 11.3 76.2 ± 11.1* 76.3 ± 12.1**
Fasting glucose, mmol/l 5.22 ± 1.38 5.16 ± 1.34 5.58 ± 1.45**
Serum triglycerides, mmol/l 1.58 ± 1.18 1.53 ± 0.96 1.49 ± 1.03
Serum HDL-c, mmol/l 1.30 ± 0.30 1.26 ± 0.30* 1.32 ± 0.31
  1. *semi-urban vs. urban, P <0.05; **rural vs. urban, P <0.05; CNY: China Yuan; DM: diabetes mellitus; HT: hypertension; HDL-c: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.